Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin Copyright © 2017 Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin. All rights reserved. The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Total PYY and GLP-1 in Healthy Females: A Pilot Study Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  ); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec “all-out” cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points. There was a session × time interaction for GLP-1 () where SIT and MICT ( and ) were higher compared to CTRL both immediately and 90 min after exercise. There was a main effect of time for PYY where 90 min after exercise it was decreased versus before and immediately after exercise. There was a session × time interaction for hunger with lower ratings following SIT versus MICT () and CTRL () 90 min after exercise. These results suggest that though GLP-1 is elevated after exercise in women, it is not affected by exercise intensity though hunger was lower 90 min after exercise with SIT. As the sample size is small further study is needed to confirm these findings. Jillian R. Hallworth, Jennifer L. Copeland, Jon Doan, and Tom J. Hazell Copyright © 2017 Jillian R. Hallworth et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Parathyroid Hormone Concentration in Brazilians Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamins are organic compounds that play a vital role in the control of metabolic processes. The D complex is considered a nutrient with a hormonal action and has an important participation in the constant maintenance of serum and extracellular calcium levels. The present study aims to analyze the results of 105.588 vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements obtained from a database from a clinical analysis laboratory in Brazil, between the years of 2011 and 2013. The values of 25(OH)D were correlated with age, gender, and values of PTH. The results show a high prevalence of values of 25(OH)D considered inadequate, characterizing 76% of the studied population. It was observed that 26,5% of the individuals had deficiency and 49,5% had insufficiency of vitamin D. It was also shown that there was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and PTH levels. In conclusion, this study is in accordance with others that show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different populations and alerts us for the importance of these measurements and analysis in clinical practice and as a base for diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis. Juliana Sálvio Martins, Magda de Oliveira Palhares, Octávio Cury Mayrink Teixeira, and Mariana Gontijo Ramos Copyright © 2017 Juliana Sálvio Martins et al. All rights reserved. A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active Individuals Tue, 24 Jan 2017 12:20:59 +0000 Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels. Participants performed an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill (3 min warm-up of 40% peak oxygen consumption, 4 min at 90% of gas exchange threshold I and 70% (Δ) maximal end speed until volitional fatigue). Results. Urinary levels of nitrite and nitrate increased after 90 min of beetroot gel ingestion. Plasma glucose concentrations lowered after the exercise and the decrease was maintained for 20 min. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum cortisol, and blood lactate were not altered after the beetroot gel ingestion compared to a placebo gel. Conclusion. The single dose of beetroot gel provoked an increase of nitric oxide synthesis although no improvement on the physical performance of athletes during aerobic submaximal exercise was observed. Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Thiago Silveira Alvares, and Vânia M. Flosi Paschoalin Copyright © 2017 Julia Vasconcellos et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of  g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly () among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences () being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. Shola Gabriel Solomon, Gabriel Arome Ataguba, and Gabriel Enemona Itodo Copyright © 2017 Shola Gabriel Solomon et al. All rights reserved. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate () increases NO formation, via reduction to nitrite () by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index:  kg/m2 (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults ( kg/m2) ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g), with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit reduction to . Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes (). Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity), was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults (). Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese ( versus ) but not in nonobese ( versus ) adults (). In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals. Joseph W. Beals, Scott E. Binns, Janelle L. Davis, Gregory R. Giordano, Anna L. Klochak, Hunter L. Paris, Melani M. Schweder, Garrett L. Peltonen, Rebecca L. Scalzo, and Christopher Bell Copyright © 2017 Joseph W. Beals et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana. Mahama Saaka, Jeremiah Oladele, Asamoah Larbi, and Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon Copyright © 2017 Mahama Saaka et al. All rights reserved. Plasma and Aorta Biochemistry and MMPs Activities in Female Rabbit Fed Methionine Enriched Diet and Their Offspring Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:37:46 +0000 This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each ), nonpregnant control (NPC), pregnant control (PC) that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet), and pregnant Met (PMet) that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w) for 3 months (500 mg/d). All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies. Plasma results showed that Met excess increased Hcy, raised CRP in NPMet and decreased it in PMet, enhanced significantly proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities in NPMet, and reduced them in PMet. Aorta showed a rise in collagen level, essentially in PMet, a reduction of elastin content in both PMet and NPMet, and a significant decrease in lipid content in PMet, with histological changes that are more pronounced in NPMet than PMet. Met excess enhanced proMMP-9 activities in NPMet while it decreased them in PMet. PMet newborn presented increase in uremia and CRP and significant rise of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 forms. In aorta, media and adventitia thickness increased, total lipids content decreased, proMMP-9 activity decreased, and proMMP-2 activity increased. Khira Othmani Mecif, Souhila Aouichat Bouguerra, and Yasmina Benazzoug Copyright © 2017 Khira Othmani Mecif et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Compliance with Nutritional Counselling on Body Composition Parameters in Head and Neck Cancer Patients under Radiotherapy Mon, 02 Jan 2017 07:17:01 +0000 Background. Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with increased risk of malnutrition in cancer patients, particularly in those with head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of compliance of patients with individual dietary counselling on body composition parameters in HNC patients under RT. Material and Methods. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (mean age: ) were prospectively followed. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to determine body composition parameters before, in the middle of, and at the end of RT. All patients received nutritional counselling and majority of them (94.6%) received oral nutritional supplement (ONS) during RT or chemoradiotherapy. If a patient consumed ≥75% of the recommended energy and protein intake via ONS and regular food, he/she was considered to be “compliant” (), while those who failed to meet this criteria were considered to be “noncompliant” (). Results. Body mass index, weight, fat percentage, fat mass, fat free mass, and muscle mass did not decrease significantly over time in compliant patients, but in noncompliant patients, all of these indices decreased significantly from baseline compared to the end of treatment (). Hand grip strength did not differ significantly between the two groups at baseline and over time in each group. When retrospectively evaluated, heavy mucositis was less commonly observed in compliant than noncompliant patients (11.1% versus 88.9%, resp.) (). Conclusion. We conclude that body composition parameters were better in head and neck cancer patients considered as compliant with nutritional counselling than noncompliant ones during RT period. D. Hopanci Bicakli, O. Ozkaya Akagunduz, R. Meseri Dalak, M. Esassolak, R. Uslu, and M. Uyar Copyright © 2017 D. Hopanci Bicakli et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Habits of Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Variety and Frequency of Food Intake Thu, 22 Dec 2016 14:33:29 +0000 The objective of the present study was to observe the dietary patterns and food frequencies of type 2 diabetes patients attending the clinics of the Family Practice Center of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, located in a highly urbanized area in Sri Lanka. An interviewer administered questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 100 type 2 diabetes patients [age 35–70 years; mean age (males = 44; females = 56)]. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 software. Vegetables, fatty foods, and poultry consumption were in accordance with the national guidelines. A significant percentage (45.5%) consumed rice mixed meals for all three meals and only 67% consumed fruits at least once a day. Majority (71%) consumed full-cream milk and sugar intake (77%) was in accordance with the guidelines. Noncaloric sweetener usage was nonexistent. Daily green leafy vegetable intake and the quantity consumed were inadequate to obtain beneficial effects. From the study population, 44% [females 50%; males 36%] of the patients were either overweight or obese. However, only 60% of those patients accepted that they were either overweight or obese. Only 14% exercised daily while 69% never exercised. Study revealed the importance of educating patients with type 2 diabetes on dietary changes and more importantly the involvement in regular physical exercises. Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Sagarika Ekanayake, and Chandanie Wanigatunge Copyright © 2016 Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera et al. All rights reserved. Downregulation of PGC-1α Prevents the Beneficial Effect of EET-Heme Oxygenase-1 on Mitochondrial Integrity and Associated Metabolic Function in Obese Mice Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:03:18 +0000 Background/Objectives. Obesity and metabolic syndrome and associated adiposity are a systemic condition characterized by increased mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and inhibition of antioxidant genes, HO-1, and EETs levels. We postulate that EETs attenuate adiposity by stimulating mitochondrial function and induction of HO-1 via activation of PGC-1α in adipose and hepatic tissue. Methods. Cultured murine adipocytes and mice fed a high fat (HF) diet were used to assess the functional relationship among EETs, PGC-1α, HO-1, and mitochondrial signaling using an EET-agonist (EET-A) and PGC-1α-deficient cells and mice using lentiviral PGC-1α(sh). Results. EET-A is a potent inducer of PGC-1α, HO-1, mitochondrial biogenesis (cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 4 and SIRT3), fusion proteins (Mfn and OPA1) and fission proteins (DRP1 and FIS1) (), fasting glucose, BW, and blood pressure. These beneficial effects were prevented by administration of lenti-PGC-1α(sh). EET-A administration prevented HF diet induced mitochondrial and dysfunction in adipose tissue and restored VO2 effects that were abrogated in PGC-1α-deficient mice. Conclusion. EET is identified as an upstream positive regulator of PGC-1α that leads to increased HO-1, decreased BW and fasting blood glucose and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation, that is, increased insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial integrity, and possible use of EET-agonist for treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Shailendra P. Singh, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Jian Cao, John R. Falck, Attallah Kappas, and Nader G. Abraham Copyright © 2016 Shailendra P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study Mon, 19 Dec 2016 14:34:24 +0000 The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants ( years) were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH) training () and normobaric normoxic (NN) training () groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid), plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX]), arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE), and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO) were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size) after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players. Carlos Burgos, Carlos Henríquez-Olguín, David Cristóbal Andrade, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oscar F. Araneda, Allan White, and Hugo Cerda-Kohler Copyright © 2016 Carlos Burgos et al. All rights reserved. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L.) Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health Wed, 07 Dec 2016 08:27:17 +0000 Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts. Souleymane Abdoul-Azize Copyright © 2016 Souleymane Abdoul-Azize. All rights reserved. Ghanaians Might Be at Risk of Inadequate Dietary Intake of Potassium Tue, 06 Dec 2016 14:25:15 +0000 Adequate dietary intake of potassium (K) helps fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This paper (i) estimated the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compared this estimate with the WHO recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate K intake. Food supply data (1961–2011) was obtained from the FAO Food Balance Sheet (FBS) to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate dietary intake of K. The K contents of the food items were obtained from food composition databases. The mean K supply per capita per day was approximately 856 mg. The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of inadequate dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K deficiency, including assessment of K supplying power of soils and K fertilizer management in food crop production systems, as well as empirical estimates of K content of food items (including those underreported in the FBS) and mixed diets in Ghana. David Oscar Yawson, Michael Osei Adu, Benjamin Ason, Frederick Ato Armah, Emmanuel Boateng, and Reggie Quansah Copyright © 2016 David Oscar Yawson et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Lipoxygenase Inhibitor Baicalein on Muscles in Ovariectomized Rats Mon, 05 Dec 2016 14:52:31 +0000 Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass accompanying osteoporosis, leads to falls and fall-related injuries. Baicalein, as a phytochemical agent, has an antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect in muscle. In this study, sixty-one female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: four groups were ovariectomized (OVX) and one control group was nonovariectomized (NON-OVX). Eight weeks after ovariectomy, three disparate concentrations (1 mg/kg body weight (BW), 10 mg/kg BW, and 100 mg/kg BW) of baicalein were applied subcutaneously daily in three OVX groups. Mm. soleus, gastrocnemius, and longissimus were extracted; their diameter, area, relation to body, and muscle weights as well as number of capillaries per fibre were recorded. In Mm. soleus and gastrocnemius, the baicalein effect (increasing number of capillaries per fibre) was proportional to the dose applied. The fibre diameters and area under baicalein treatment were significantly greater compared to OVX and NON-OVX groups. In M. longissimus, we observed a shift to type IIa fibres. Serum creatine kinase levels were significantly lower in highest baicalein concentration group. We conclude that baicalein can stimulate angiogenesis, though not fibre type-specific, in skeletal muscle and reduce the estrogen-related loss of fibre diameter and area in the skeletal muscle in rats. Therefore, a protective effect of baicalein on muscle cells can be assumed. D. Saul, J. H. Kling, R. L. Kosinsky, D. B. Hoffmann, M. Komrakova, M. Wicke, B. Menger, and S. Sehmisch Copyright © 2016 D. Saul et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Locally Delivered Vitamin C in the Treatment of Persistent Gingival Inflammation: Clinical and Histopathological Study Mon, 05 Dec 2016 07:48:26 +0000 Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role and efficiency of the locally injected vitamin C in the treatment of persistent gingival inflammation. Design. Twenty adult patients with persistent chronic gingival inflammation were included in this study. The same dose of sterile vitamin C was injected in gingival tissues after the completion of phase I therapy. Gingival biopsies were taken after total resolution of inflammation. The specimens were examined histologically, using H&E stain. Results. Clinical evaluation revealed great improvement of the injected sites with recall visits. Histopathological results revealed marked decrease in inflammatory cells and epithelial thickness and a higher number of newly formed subbasal capillaries. Conclusions. Vitamin C is an effective adjunctive treatment in reducing various degrees of chronic gingival inflammation. Nermin M. Yussif, Manar A. Abdul Aziz, and Ahmed R. Abdel Rahman Copyright © 2016 Nermin M. Yussif et al. All rights reserved. Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia Wed, 09 Nov 2016 06:22:32 +0000 Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups—Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate). The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69). Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Whye Lian Cheah, Ching Thon Chang, Helmy Hazmi, and Wan Manan Wan Muda Copyright © 2016 Whye Lian Cheah et al. All rights reserved. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes Mon, 31 Oct 2016 09:09:28 +0000 Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%). The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%). Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors. Ashley Andrews, Janet R. Wojcik, Joni M. Boyd, and Charles J. Bowers Copyright © 2016 Ashley Andrews et al. All rights reserved. Serum Metabolomic Response to Long-Term Supplementation with all-rac-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in a Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 20 Oct 2016 11:55:10 +0000 Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA), 20 mg/day -carotene, both, placebo). Methods. Metabolomic profiling was conducted on baseline and follow-up fasting serum (Metabolon, Inc.). Results. After correction for multiple comparisons, five metabolites were statistically significantly altered (β is the change in metabolite level expressed as number of standard deviations on the log scale): α-CEHC sulfate (, ), α-CEHC glucuronide (, ), α-tocopherol (, ), γ-tocopherol (, ), and β-tocopherol (, ). Glutarylcarnitine, beta-alanine, ornithine, and N6-acetyllysine were also decreased by ATA supplementation (β range 0.40 to −0.36), but not statistically significantly. Conclusions. Comparison of the observed metabolite alterations resulting from ATA supplementation to those in other vitamin E trials of different populations, dosages, or formulations may shed light on the apparently discordant vitamin E-prostate cancer risk findings. Alison M. Mondul, Steven C. Moore, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Anne M. Evans, Edward D. Karoly, Satu Männistö, Joshua N. Sampson, and Demetrius Albanes Copyright © 2016 Alison M. Mondul et al. All rights reserved. Transient Decrease in Circulatory Testosterone and Homocysteine Precedes the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Features in Fructose-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats Wed, 12 Oct 2016 12:39:21 +0000 Background. Increased fructose consumption is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we investigated the time course of development of MS features in high-fructose-fed Sprague Dawley rats along with circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels. Methods. Rats were divided into control and experimental groups and fed with diets containing 54.5% starch and fructose, respectively, for 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Plasma testosterone and homocysteine levels were measured along with insulin, glucose, and lipids. Body composition, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipids were measured. Results. Increase in hepatic triglyceride content was first observed in metabolic disturbance followed by hypertriglyceridemia and systemic insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Hepatic lipids were increased in time-dependent manner by fructose-feeding starting from 4 weeks, but circulatory triglyceride levels were increased after 12 weeks. Fasting insulin and Homeostatis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were increased after 12 weeks of fructose-feeding. Decreased visceral adiposity, circulatory testosterone, and homocysteine levels were observed after 4 weeks of fructose-feeding, which were normalized at 12 and 24 weeks. Conclusions. We conclude that transient decrease in circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels and increased hepatic triglyceride content are the earliest metabolic disturbances that preceded hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed SD rats. Anil Sakamuri, Sujatha Pitla, Uday Kumar Putcha, Sugeedha Jayapal, Sailaja Pothana, Sai Santosh Vadakattu, Nagabhushan Reddy Konapalli, Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri, and Ahamed Ibrahim Copyright © 2016 Anil Sakamuri et al. All rights reserved. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males Tue, 11 Oct 2016 08:49:38 +0000 The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age  yr; height  cm; and average years of training  yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100–168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects’ normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD)  kcals/kg/day and  g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased () during the high protein phase to  kcals/kg/day and  g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d) for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass. Jose Antonio, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Leonel Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Richard Buehn, and Corey A. Peacock Copyright © 2016 Jose Antonio et al. All rights reserved. Malnutrition: The Importance of Identification, Documentation, and Coding in the Acute Care Setting Wed, 28 Sep 2016 10:25:16 +0000 Malnutrition is a significant issue in the hospital setting. This cross-sectional, observational study determined the prevalence of malnutrition amongst 189 adult inpatients in a teaching hospital using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool and compared data to control groups for coding of malnutrition to determine the estimated unclaimed financial reimbursement associated with this comorbidity. Fifty-three percent of inpatients were classified as malnourished. Significant associations were found between malnutrition and increasing age, decreasing body mass index, and increased length of stay. Ninety-eight percent of malnourished patients were coded as malnourished in medical records. The results of the medical history audit of patients in control groups showed that between 0.9 and 5.4% of patients were coded as malnourished which is remarkably lower than the 52% of patients who were coded as malnourished from the point prevalence study data. This is most likely to be primarily due to lack of identification. The estimated unclaimed annual financial reimbursement due to undiagnosed or undocumented malnutrition based on the point prevalence study was AU$8,536,200. The study found that half the patients were malnourished, with older adults being particularly vulnerable. It is imperative that malnutrition is diagnosed and accurately documented and coded, so appropriate coding, funding reimbursement, and treatment can occur. Jane Kellett, Greg Kyle, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Mark Naunton, and Narelle Luff Copyright © 2016 Jane Kellett et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Treatment with Salsalate, Menhaden Oil, Combination of Salsalate and Menhaden Oil, or Resolvin D1 of C57Bl/6J Type 1 Diabetic Mouse on Neuropathic Endpoints Wed, 28 Sep 2016 06:11:13 +0000 Aims. In this study a streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of salsalate, menhaden oil, the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil, or resolvin D1 on neuropathic endpoints. Materials and Methods. Changes in body weight, blood glucose, serum markers for triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and resolvin D1, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and thermal sensitivity were assessed, as well as performing in vivo confocal microscopy of subepithelial corneal nerves and immunohistochemistry of nerves in the cornea and foot pad. Results. Diabetic animals failed to gain weight and had elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetic mice had slowed nerve conduction velocity, reduced innervation of the foot pad and cornea subepithelial and epithelial layers, and reduced thermal sensitivity. Monotherapy treatment with salsalate, menhaden oil, and resolvin D1 reduced the pathological signs of diabetic neuropathy. The combination of salsalate and menhaden oil also reduced signs of pathology and generated elevated plasma levels of resolvin D1 compared to other groups. Conclusions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil may be more efficacious than monotherapy alone for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Matthew S. Yorek, Lawrence J. Coppey, Hanna Shevalye, Alexander Obrosov, Randy H. Kardon, and Mark A. Yorek Copyright © 2016 Matthew S. Yorek et al. All rights reserved. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:16:36 +0000 The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, years old, :    mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  . All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample -tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK:  kJ versus NoBK:  kJ; ) and evening (BK:  kJ versus NoBK: ; ) energy intake and RQ (BK: versus NoBK: ; ) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise ( versus  mmol/L; ). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. Jessica L. Bachman, Ronald W. Deitrick, and Angela R. Hillman Copyright © 2016 Jessica L. Bachman et al. All rights reserved. Schoolchildren with Learning Difficulties Have Low Iron Status and High Anemia Prevalence Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:44:08 +0000 Background. In developing countries there is high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, which reduces cognitive performance, work performance, and endurance; it also causes learning difficulties and negative impact on development for infant population. Methods. The study concerns a case-control study; data was collected from an appropriate sample consisting of schoolchildren aged 8 years. The sample was divided into two subgroups: those with deficient initial reading skills (DIRS) (case) and those without (control). Blood samples were taken to analyze hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. These results were then used to compare the two groups with Student’s -test. Association between DIRS and anemia was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of schoolchildren with DIRS were statistically lower when compared to those without, hemoglobin and serum ferritin . DIRS was statistically associated with a risk of anemia with a weighted OR of 1.62. Conclusions. In this study, schoolchildren with DIRS had lower hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels when compared to those without. F. P. N. Arcanjo, C. P. C. Arcanjo, and P. R. Santos Copyright © 2016 F. P. N. Arcanjo et al. All rights reserved. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study Wed, 17 Aug 2016 08:52:34 +0000 Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, ; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, ; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). Jonathan M. Oliver, Lee Stoner, David S. Rowlands, Aaron R. Caldwell, Elizabeth Sanders, Andreas Kreutzer, Joel B. Mitchell, Martin Purpura, and Ralf Jäger Copyright © 2016 Jonathan M. Oliver et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition: From Bench to Bedside Wed, 10 Aug 2016 09:32:41 +0000 Naim A. Khan, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Aziz Hichami, and Najat Mokhtar Copyright © 2016 Naim A. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids Mon, 27 Jun 2016 15:52:15 +0000 Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [; age: years; BMI:  kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all ). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. Arpita Basu, Stacy Morris, Angel Nguyen, Nancy M. Betts, Dongxu Fu, and Timothy J. Lyons Copyright © 2016 Arpita Basu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:17:26 +0000 Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group () which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention. Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (; , resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (), TNF-α (), and hs-CRP (). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 () in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control. Sadegh Jafarnejad, Sadaf Saremi, Farzan Jafarnejad, and Arman Arab Copyright © 2016 Sadegh Jafarnejad et al. All rights reserved. Increased Gustatory Response Score in Obesity and Association Levels with IL-6 and Leptin Thu, 16 Jun 2016 06:58:08 +0000 Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; ). Moreover, IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with GRS alteration among patients with GRS 4 (resp., OR =17.5 [95% CI, 1.56–193.32; ]; OR = 16 [95% CI, 1.69–151.11; ]). For the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate (MH OR), IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with obesity, in patients with either GRS 4 or GRS > 4 (resp., MH OR = 8.77 [95% CI, 2.06–37.44; ]; MH OR = 5.76 [95% CI, 1.64–20.24; ]). Conclusions. In a low grade inflammation linked to obesity, taste alteration is associated with high levels of IL-6 and leptin. Nesrine Remla, Zeyneb Hadjidj, Kamel Ghezzaz, Soraya Moulessehoul, and Mourad Aribi Copyright © 2016 Nesrine Remla et al. All rights reserved.