Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Assessment of Weight Management Practices among Adults in the United Arab Emirates Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 With a rise in global incidence of overweight and obesity, the number of patients seeking weight management (WM) advice is likely to increase. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of WM practices and investigate association of WM goals with sociodemographic variables and practices among United Arab Emirates (UAE) adults. An exploratory, cross-sectional research was conducted on 1275 adult males and females, residing in UAE. A structured questionnaire was administered. WM goals to lose/maintain/gain weight were reported in 88.3% participants. WM goals were significantly associated with age, sex, marital status, education, current body weight perception, and medical condition. Out of 21 selected WM practices, popular strategies included increasing physical activity (52.9%), eating less fat (51.1%), consuming fewer calories (43.3%), joining gym (27.5%), skipping meals (26.1%), and consuming natural herbs and teas (20.7%). Visiting dietitian (12.3%) ranked ninth in the order of preference. Males focused on physical activity, gyms, and wellness centers and females on calories counting, dietitian visits, meals replacement, skipping meals, and natural herbs/teas. Married adults reported eating less fat (54.3% versus 47.3%, ); singles opted calories counting, gyms, and meals replacement. Frequent referral sources were friends (37.8%) and Internet (32.1%). Most UAE adults had WM goals that were associated with sociodemographic variables and WM practices. Awareness about the ill-effects of unhealthy WM practices and importance of dietitian’s consultation are imperative. Amita Attlee, Nour Atmani, Viktor Stromtsov, Fatima Ali, Rim Tikarly, Sarah Ryad, Ghada Salah, Hayder Hasan, and Reyad Obaid Copyright © 2017 Amita Attlee et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Nutrient-Fortified Milk-Based Formula on the Nutritional Status and Psychomotor Skills of Preschool Children Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:10:06 +0000 This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m2, mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk (). Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234. Mavil May C. Cervo, Diane S. Mendoza, Erniel B. Barrios, and Leonora N. Panlasigui Copyright © 2017 Mavil May C. Cervo et al. All rights reserved. Heme Oxygenase Induction Suppresses Hepatic Hepcidin and Rescues Ferroportin and Ferritin Expression in Obese Mice Thu, 14 Sep 2017 07:08:27 +0000 Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice. Obese mice exhibited hyperglycemia (); increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, ); oxidative stress (); and increased hepatic hepcidin levels (). Enhancement of hepcidin was reflected in the reduced expression of ferroportin in obese mice (). However, this effect is accompanied by a significant decline in ferritin expression. Additionally, there are reduced insulin receptor phosphorylation and attenuation of metabolic regulators pAMPK, pAKT, and pLKB1. Cobalt protoporphyrin- (CoPP-) induced HO-1 upregulation in obese mice reversed these alterations (), while attenuating hepatic hepcidin levels. These effects of CoPP were prevented in obese mice concurrently exposed to an inhibitor of HO (SnMP) (). Our results highlight a modulatory effect of HO on iron homeostasis mediated through the suppression of hepatic hepcidin. Nitin Puri, Yevgeniy Arefiev, Robert Chao, David Sacerdoti, Hibba Chaudry, Alexandra Nichols, Krithika Srikanthan, Athar Nawab, Dana Sharma, Vishal Hari Lakhani, Rebecca Klug, Komal Sodhi, and Stephen J. Peterson Copyright © 2017 Nitin Puri et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of Acute Malnutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Public Health Facilities of Pastoralist Community, Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia: A Case Control Study Wed, 13 Sep 2017 08:11:17 +0000 Background. In low income countries, acute malnutrition continues to be the most important risk factor for illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months. Methods. A facility based unmatched case control study was employed on 420 (140 cases and 280 controls) children aged 6–59 months with their caregivers between January 20 and February 20, 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Children aged 12–23 months [AOR = 10.51, 95% CI = 4.93, 22.34], rural residence [AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.22, 4.79], illiterate father [AOR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.32, 4.61], Monthly income of less than 1000 birr [AOR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.05, 7.69], and food served together with family [AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.10, 4.30] were associated with acute malnutrition. Conclusion. Rural residence, illiterate father, monthly income of less than 1000 birr, and food served together with family are statistically associated with acute malnutrition. Improving practices of parents on appropriate child feeding and creating awareness related to key risk factors of acute malnutrition should be further strengthened. Anwar Seid, Berhanu Seyoum, and Firehiwot Mesfin Copyright © 2017 Anwar Seid et al. All rights reserved. Multiclinic Observations on the Simplified Diet in PKU Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism that historically has been treated with a strict phenylalanine-restricted diet where all foods are weighed and measured. This is cumbersome and difficult for patients and caregivers, especially patients with high phenylalanine blood concentrations who often have neurocognitive deficits. The Simplified Diet is an alternative approach that allows for increased flexibility, promotes healthy food choices, and is easier to manage than a traditional diet for PKU. This paper describes the implementation of the Simplified Diet and outlines education, counseling strategies, and challenges encountered by three metabolic clinics in the United States. Laurie Bernstein, Casey Burns, Melissa Sailer-Hammons, Angela Kurtz, and Frances Rohr Copyright © 2017 Laurie Bernstein et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Morus alba and Acacia catechu on Quality of Life and Overall Function in Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Mon, 11 Sep 2017 08:10:24 +0000 The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of UP1306 on discomfort and function in adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 135 subjects received UP1306, a standardized, proprietary extract of Morus alba and Acacia catechu, glucosamine chondroitin, or placebo for 12 weeks. Discomfort, stiffness, and activities of daily living measured by the WOMAC questionnaire and VAS (pain/discomfort) were improved within all groups. Range of motion and distance walked were improved. There were no changes in TNFα levels for any of the products. There was a significant difference in urinary C-telopeptides of type II collagen (CTX-II), a marker of cartilage degradation between UP1306, and placebo after 12 weeks (). All efficacy measurements were improved from baseline to most time-points for UP1306, the comparator, and placebo without a significant association between the products. There was a significant difference between the changes of uCTX-II for UP1306 and placebo after 12 weeks. Early intervention with UP1306 aimed at reducing bone and cartilage degradation through reported inhibition of catabolic proinflammatory pathways may help to prevent joint cartilage damage. This study is registered with Clinical Trial ID ISRCTN15418623. Douglas S. Kalman and Susan J. Hewlings Copyright © 2017 Douglas S. Kalman and Susan J. Hewlings. All rights reserved. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children Mon, 24 Jul 2017 08:43:13 +0000 The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI) affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies. Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Francisco Amado, and Elsa Lamy Copyright © 2017 Lénia Rodrigues et al. All rights reserved. Appropriate Weaning Practice and Associated Factors among Infants and Young Children in Northwest Ethiopia Thu, 20 Jul 2017 07:52:05 +0000 Background. The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child’s second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. Objective. This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6–23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 351 children aged 6–23 months. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with appropriate weaning practice. Results. Nearly quarter (23.9%) of mothers have practiced appropriate weaning. Proportion of children who started consumption of weaning food timely and met the recommended dietary diversity was 61.5% and 43.9%, respectively. Child age [AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio): 7.04], husband’s occupation [AOR: 6.85], and maternal weaning advice [AOR: 4.38] were positively associated with appropriate weaning practice, while family size [AOR: 0.28] showed negative association. Conclusion. Appropriate weaning practice was found to be low. Health education at community level and one-on-one advice for mothers in health institutions are highly recommended to improve appropriate weaning. Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, and Kelemeu Abebe Gelaw Copyright © 2017 Liknaw Bewket Zeleke et al. All rights reserved. Oral Administration of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide during Lactation: Effects on Hypothalamic Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor and Food Intake in Adult Mice Thu, 20 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We have previously shown that administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) during lactation leads to overweight, increased body fat accumulation, and insulin resistance in adult mice. This study was designed to elucidate if these effects are due to increased food intake, stimulated by an augmented abundance and binding ability of the hypothalamic cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R). With this aim, male mice pups were treated with a daily oral dose of AEA during lactation. Adult mice were also treated with a single oral dose of AEA, to evaluate acute food intake during 4 h. At 21 and 160 days, CB1R protein abundance was calculated by western blot analysis. Capacity of hypothalamic membranes to specifically bind the radioligand 3[H]-CP55.940 was also measured. Western blots showed a 72% increase in CB1R abundance in AEA-treated 21-day-old mice, without differences in adult mice. Additionally, specific binding of 3[H]-CP55.940 to hypothalamic membranes from adult mice was significantly lower in those mice treated with AEA during lactation. Moreover, AEA did not stimulate acute food intake in both, AEA-treated and control mice. Results suggest that metabolic alterations found in adult mice because of AEA treatment during lactation are not associated with hypothalamic CB1R. Carolina Aguirre, Valeska Castillo, and Miguel Llanos Copyright © 2017 Carolina Aguirre et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Ghanaians Might Be at Risk of Inadequate Dietary Intake of Potassium Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:26:21 +0000 Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Copyright © 2017 Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved. Inflammatory Markers Are Positively Associated with Serum trans-Fatty Acids in an Adult American Population Tue, 11 Jul 2017 07:23:30 +0000 Background and Aim. The relationship between serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and systemic inflammation markers is unclear. We investigated the association of serum TFAs with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in adult Americans. Methods. The 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants with measured data on hs-CRP and fibrinogen were included. TFAs were measured via capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization. Analysis of covariance and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between these parameters, accounting for the survey design. Results. Of the 5446 eligible participants, 46.8% () were men. The mean age was 47.1 years overall: 47.8 years in men and 46.5 years in women (). After adjustment for age and sex, mean serum TFAs rose with the increasing quarters of hs-CRP and fibrinogen (both ). In linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, education, marital status, body mass index, and smoking, serum TFAs were an independent predictor of plasma hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels. Conclusion. A high level of TFAs appears to be a contributor to an unfavourable inflammatory profile. Because serum TFAs concentrations are affected by dietary TFA intake, these data suggest a possible contribution of TFAs intake modulation in the prevention of inflammation-related chronic diseases. Mohsen Mazidi, Hong-kai Gao, and Andre Pascal Kengne Copyright © 2017 Mohsen Mazidi et al. All rights reserved. Do Insulin Replacement and Omega3 Protect the Male Reproductive Function of the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice? Mon, 10 Jul 2017 06:34:48 +0000 Diabetes mellitus (DM), the most common metabolic disease, might affect different organs such as male reproductive system. Experiments have shown that n-3 fatty acids could improve male reproductive function. Present study was performed to examine the effects of omega3 on sperms and testicular parameters in diabetic mice. Adult NMRI male mice were randomly divided into intact and diabetic groups (). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals were divided into 4 groups of diabetic-saline (Dia-Sa), diabetic-insulin (Dia-Ins), diabetic-omega3 (Dia-omg3), and diabetic-insulin-omega3 (Dia-Ins-omg3). Following confirmation of diabetes, different treatments including 3 U/100 g insulin subcutaneously and 400 mg/kg omega3 orally were administered, where applicable according to the treatment groups. Thirty-five days later, the sperm number, motility, progression, and normal morphology were determined. Also, testes diameters and structure including germinal epithelium thickness, seminiferous tubule diameters, Leydig cell number, and testosterone level were assessed. Sperm number, viability, fast motility, testes volume, and serum testosterone level decreased insignificantly in the Dia-Sa group compared with the intact animals. Neither insulin replacement nor omega3 administration could significantly improve the outcome. We might conclude that short periods of diabetes could not significantly affect the male reproductive function. In addition, insulin replacement and/or omega-3 supplementation does not have any profound effects on male reproductive system. Atefe Yaghoubi, Abbas Shahedi, Hakime Akbari, and Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani Copyright © 2017 Atefe Yaghoubi et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Central and South American Immigrant Residents of the Washington, DC, Area Tue, 04 Jul 2017 06:41:36 +0000 The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and its risk components and then compare differences in the risk components among low-income, uninsured Central and South American recent immigrants to the USA. This cross-sectional survey sampled 1,042 adult patients from a medical clinic in metropolitan Washington, DC. The overall prevalence of the MetS was 26.9% estimated using the modified harmonized definition. The most common abnormal metabolic indicator for women was an elevated BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (36.1%), while, for men, it was an elevated triglyceride level (46.5%). The risk of abnormal MetS indicators increased steadily with increasing BMI. The abnormal indicator combination identifying the most subjects with the MetS included the following: high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. MetS rates were highest among subjects from El Salvador and Honduras, 31.3% and 28.0%, respectively, and lowest among subjects from Bolivia (21.7%). Dyslipidemia and high BMI increased the likelihood of having the MetS, which is consistent with studies on Mexican Americans in the San Antonio Heart Study and studies within Central and South American countries. This study adds new baseline epidemiological data for largely understudied, low-income, and mostly recent immigrant groups. Regina M. Gill, Saira A. Khan, Robert T. Jackson, and Marguerite Duane Copyright © 2017 Regina M. Gill et al. All rights reserved. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health Sun, 18 Jun 2017 09:43:16 +0000 Objective. To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. Quality of Evidence. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Main Message. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Conclusion. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health. Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg Copyright © 2017 Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg. All rights reserved. Dietary Strategies and Novel Pharmaceutical Approaches Targeting Serum ApoA-I Metabolism: A Systematic Overview Mon, 12 Jun 2017 08:21:06 +0000 The incidence of CHD is still increasing, which underscores the need for new preventive and therapeutic approaches to decrease CHD risk. In this respect, increasing apoA-I concentrations may be a promising approach, especially through increasing apoA-I synthesis. This review first provides insight into current knowledge on apoA-I production, clearance, and degradation, followed by a systematic review of dietary and novel pharmacological approaches to target apoA-I metabolism. For this, a systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled intervention studies that examined effects of whole foods and (non)nutrients on apoA-I metabolism. In addition, novel pharmacological approaches were searched for, which were specifically developed to target apoA-I metabolism. We conclude that both dietary components and pharmacological approaches can be used to increase apoA-I concentrations or functionality. For the dietary components in particular, more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is necessary, as increasing apoA-I per se does not necessarily translate into a reduced CHD risk. Lotte Smolders, Jogchum Plat, and Ronald P. Mensink Copyright © 2017 Lotte Smolders et al. All rights reserved. Antiglycemic Effect of Water Extractable Arabinoxylan from Wheat Aleurone and Bran Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration. WEAX inhibited α-glucosidase activity only when maltose was used as a substrate but not sucrose. The IC50 values of WEAX (– mg/mL) were highly correlated to ferulic acid content (), arabinose to xylose ratio (), and relative proportions of xylose being unsubstituted (), disubstituted (), and monosubstituted (). The Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested an uncompetitive enzyme inhibition mode. Thus, our results suggest that antiglycemic properties of WEAX may be derived from direct inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, and Trust Beta Copyright © 2017 Lovemore Nkhata Malunga et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria Thu, 04 May 2017 07:55:41 +0000 Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL) of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (). Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% () and magnesium by 30% (). Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at as NCT01428258. Bridget M. Stroup, Emily A. Sawin, Sangita G. Murali, Neil Binkley, Karen E. Hansen, and Denise M. Ney Copyright © 2017 Bridget M. Stroup et al. All rights reserved. Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Components on Lipodystrophy Different Subtypes Associated with HIV Sun, 30 Apr 2017 06:54:20 +0000 HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed. They performed ambulatorial follow-up and used ART regularly. The main findings were greater lipid profile alterations among women, while no metabolic profile differences were found between the HALS subtypes. The lipohypertrophy group showed major alterations, with higher values for total body fat percent, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), and abdominal and neck circumferences when compared to the other groups. Lean body mass was superior only compared to the mixed lipodystrophy group, and fat mass only compared to the lipoatrophy group. BMI showed strong correlation with the VFA. In conclusion, despite anthropometric alterations related to HALS these individuals present, those are not accompanied with metabolic alterations. Strategies, as behavioral changes and disorders prevention, are important to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease development. Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, and Sílvia Justina Papini Copyright © 2017 Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8%) were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%). Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%), amino acids (16.8%), multivitamins (16.8%), creatine (11.5%), and omega 3 (11.5%). The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%), increase health (44.2%), and improve performance (41.5%). Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia. Ayman H. Jawadi, Abdulmalik M. Addar, Abdulaziz S. Alazzam, Fahad O. Alrabieah, Abdullah S. Al Alsheikh, Roaa R. Amer, Al Anoud S. Aldrees, Maha A. Al Turki, Ali K. Osman, and Motasim Badri Copyright © 2017 Ayman H. Jawadi et al. All rights reserved. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition. Edgar Weigand and Jennifer Egenolf Copyright © 2017 Edgar Weigand and Jennifer Egenolf. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Sarcopenic Obesity in Adults with Class II/III Obesity Using Different Diagnostic Criteria Wed, 22 Mar 2017 09:03:24 +0000 Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST) in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) using different diagnostic criteria. Methods. SO definitions were identified from a literature review of studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess LST. Demographics, anthropometrics, and body composition (by DXA) were measured in , 86% female (46.9 ± 11.1 years). Results. LST was extremely variable in individuals, even with similar body sizes, and observed across the age spectrum. The prevalence of SO ranged from 0 to 84.5% in females and 0 to 100% in males, depending upon the definition applied, with higher prevalence among definitions accounting for measures of body size or fat mass. Conclusion. SO is present, yet variable, in adults with class II/III obesity. Accounting for body mass or fat mass may identify a higher number of individuals with SO, although risk prediction remains to be studied. Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa, Arya M. Sharma, Mary Forhan, Mario Siervo, Raj S. Padwal, and Carla M. Prado Copyright © 2017 Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa et al. All rights reserved. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon Tue, 21 Mar 2017 08:14:14 +0000 Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5–14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children. Germine El-Kassas and Fouad Ziade Copyright © 2017 Germine El-Kassas and Fouad Ziade. All rights reserved. Insulin Resistance and Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Aims. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which can evolve towards devastating micro- and macrovascular complications. DM is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Insulin resistance plays an important role in the natural history of type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of CKD in T1DM and the correlation with insulin resistance (IR) in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted over a period of three years (2010–2013) and included patients with DM registered in the Clinical Centre of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases of Dolj county. The study design was an epidemiological, transversal, noninterventional type. Finally, the study group included 200 subjects with type 1 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by eGDR. The subjects with eGDR ≤ 7.5 mg/kg/min were considered with insulin resistance. Results. CKD was found in 44% of the patients. Analyzing statistically the presence of CKD, we found highly significant differences between patients with CKD and those without CKD regarding age and sex of the patients, the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and the presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricaemia. In patients with CKD, age and diabetes duration are significantly higher than in those who do not have this complication. CKD is more frequent in males than in females (50.9% men versus 34.5% women, ). From the elements of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, hyperuricemia, and dyslipidemia are significantly increased in diabetic patients with CKD. eGDR value (expressed as mg·kg−1·min−1) is lower in patients with CKD than in those without CKD (15.92 versus 6.42, ) indicating the fact that patients with CKD show higher insulin resistance than those without CKD. Conclusions. This study has shown that insulin resistance is associated with an increased risk of CKD, but, due to the cross-sectional design, the causal relationship cannot be assessed. However, the existence of this causality and the treatment benefit of insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes are issues for further discussion. Mihaela Vladu, Diana Clenciu, Ion Cristian Efrem, Mircea-Cătalin Forțofoiu, Anca Amzolini, Simona Tudorică Micu, Maria Moţa, and Maria Forțofoiu Copyright © 2017 Mihaela Vladu et al. All rights reserved. Bedside Ultrasound Measurement of Rectus Femoris: A Tutorial for the Nutrition Support Clinician Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:15:20 +0000 Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a long-term consequence after critical illness; it has been related to muscle atrophy and can be considered as one of the main nutritional support challenges at the intensive care unit. Measuring muscle mass by image techniques has become a new area of research for the nutritional support field, extending our knowledge about muscle wasting and the impact of nutritional approaches in the critical care setting, although currently there is no universally accepted technique to perform muscle measurements by ultrasound. Because of this, we present this tutorial for nutrition support clinicians, in order to understand and perform muscle measurements by this reliable, accessible, low-cost, and easy-to-use technique. Reviewing issues such as quadriceps muscle anatomy, correct technique (do’s and don’ts), identification of structures, and measurement of the rectus femoris and vastus intermedius muscles helps to acquire the basic concepts of this technique and encouraging more research in this field. Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín, Enrique Monares Zepeda, and Octavio Augusto Lescas Méndez Copyright © 2017 Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín et al. All rights reserved. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence Sun, 05 Mar 2017 08:48:23 +0000 Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM) in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity. Ina Bähr, Vincent Goritz, Henriette Doberstein, Grit Gesine Ruth Hiller, Philip Rosenstock, Janine Jahn, Ole Pörtner, Tobias Berreis, Thomas Mueller, Julia Spielmann, and Heike Kielstein Copyright © 2017 Ina Bähr et al. All rights reserved. Growth of Infants with Intestinal Failure or Feeding Intolerance Does Not Follow Standard Growth Curves Sun, 05 Mar 2017 08:10:59 +0000 Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014. Weekly weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities were calculated. Growth data were compared to Olsen growth curves to determine exact percentiles. Results. Data from infants () revealed that average growth velocities of 3-month-old infants (weight gain, 19.97 g/d; length, 0.81 cm/week; head circumference, 0.52 cm/week) fluctuated and all were below expected norms. At discharge or death, average growth velocities had further decreased (length, 0.69 cm/week; head circumference, 0.45 cm/week) except for weight, which showed a slight increase (weight, 20.56 g/d). Weight, length, and head circumference percentiles significantly decreased from birth to 40-week PMA (). Conclusions. Growth of infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance did not follow standard growth curves. Danielle L. Morton, Keli M. Hawthorne, and Carolyn E. Moore Copyright © 2017 Danielle L. Morton et al. All rights reserved. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin Copyright © 2017 Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin. All rights reserved. The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Total PYY and GLP-1 in Healthy Females: A Pilot Study Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  ); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec “all-out” cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points. There was a session × time interaction for GLP-1 () where SIT and MICT ( and ) were higher compared to CTRL both immediately and 90 min after exercise. There was a main effect of time for PYY where 90 min after exercise it was decreased versus before and immediately after exercise. There was a session × time interaction for hunger with lower ratings following SIT versus MICT () and CTRL () 90 min after exercise. These results suggest that though GLP-1 is elevated after exercise in women, it is not affected by exercise intensity though hunger was lower 90 min after exercise with SIT. As the sample size is small further study is needed to confirm these findings. Jillian R. Hallworth, Jennifer L. Copeland, Jon Doan, and Tom J. Hazell Copyright © 2017 Jillian R. Hallworth et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Parathyroid Hormone Concentration in Brazilians Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamins are organic compounds that play a vital role in the control of metabolic processes. The D complex is considered a nutrient with a hormonal action and has an important participation in the constant maintenance of serum and extracellular calcium levels. The present study aims to analyze the results of 105.588 vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements obtained from a database from a clinical analysis laboratory in Brazil, between the years of 2011 and 2013. The values of 25(OH)D were correlated with age, gender, and values of PTH. The results show a high prevalence of values of 25(OH)D considered inadequate, characterizing 76% of the studied population. It was observed that 26,5% of the individuals had deficiency and 49,5% had insufficiency of vitamin D. It was also shown that there was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and PTH levels. In conclusion, this study is in accordance with others that show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different populations and alerts us for the importance of these measurements and analysis in clinical practice and as a base for diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis. Juliana Sálvio Martins, Magda de Oliveira Palhares, Octávio Cury Mayrink Teixeira, and Mariana Gontijo Ramos Copyright © 2017 Juliana Sálvio Martins et al. All rights reserved. A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active Individuals Tue, 24 Jan 2017 12:20:59 +0000 Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels. Participants performed an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill (3 min warm-up of 40% peak oxygen consumption, 4 min at 90% of gas exchange threshold I and 70% (Δ) maximal end speed until volitional fatigue). Results. Urinary levels of nitrite and nitrate increased after 90 min of beetroot gel ingestion. Plasma glucose concentrations lowered after the exercise and the decrease was maintained for 20 min. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum cortisol, and blood lactate were not altered after the beetroot gel ingestion compared to a placebo gel. Conclusion. The single dose of beetroot gel provoked an increase of nitric oxide synthesis although no improvement on the physical performance of athletes during aerobic submaximal exercise was observed. Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Thiago Silveira Alvares, and Vânia M. Flosi Paschoalin Copyright © 2017 Julia Vasconcellos et al. All rights reserved.