Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Serum Metabolomic Response to Long-Term Supplementation with all-rac-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in a Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 20 Oct 2016 11:55:10 +0000 Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA), 20 mg/day -carotene, both, placebo). Methods. Metabolomic profiling was conducted on baseline and follow-up fasting serum (Metabolon, Inc.). Results. After correction for multiple comparisons, five metabolites were statistically significantly altered (β is the change in metabolite level expressed as number of standard deviations on the log scale): α-CEHC sulfate (, ), α-CEHC glucuronide (, ), α-tocopherol (, ), γ-tocopherol (, ), and β-tocopherol (, ). Glutarylcarnitine, beta-alanine, ornithine, and N6-acetyllysine were also decreased by ATA supplementation (β range 0.40 to −0.36), but not statistically significantly. Conclusions. Comparison of the observed metabolite alterations resulting from ATA supplementation to those in other vitamin E trials of different populations, dosages, or formulations may shed light on the apparently discordant vitamin E-prostate cancer risk findings. Alison M. Mondul, Steven C. Moore, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Anne M. Evans, Edward D. Karoly, Satu Männistö, Joshua N. Sampson, and Demetrius Albanes Copyright © 2016 Alison M. Mondul et al. All rights reserved. Transient Decrease in Circulatory Testosterone and Homocysteine Precedes the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Features in Fructose-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats Wed, 12 Oct 2016 12:39:21 +0000 Background. Increased fructose consumption is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we investigated the time course of development of MS features in high-fructose-fed Sprague Dawley rats along with circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels. Methods. Rats were divided into control and experimental groups and fed with diets containing 54.5% starch and fructose, respectively, for 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Plasma testosterone and homocysteine levels were measured along with insulin, glucose, and lipids. Body composition, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipids were measured. Results. Increase in hepatic triglyceride content was first observed in metabolic disturbance followed by hypertriglyceridemia and systemic insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Hepatic lipids were increased in time-dependent manner by fructose-feeding starting from 4 weeks, but circulatory triglyceride levels were increased after 12 weeks. Fasting insulin and Homeostatis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were increased after 12 weeks of fructose-feeding. Decreased visceral adiposity, circulatory testosterone, and homocysteine levels were observed after 4 weeks of fructose-feeding, which were normalized at 12 and 24 weeks. Conclusions. We conclude that transient decrease in circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels and increased hepatic triglyceride content are the earliest metabolic disturbances that preceded hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed SD rats. Anil Sakamuri, Sujatha Pitla, Uday Kumar Putcha, Sugeedha Jayapal, Sailaja Pothana, Sai Santosh Vadakattu, Nagabhushan Reddy Konapalli, Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri, and Ahamed Ibrahim Copyright © 2016 Anil Sakamuri et al. All rights reserved. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males Tue, 11 Oct 2016 08:49:38 +0000 The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age  yr; height  cm; and average years of training  yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100–168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects’ normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD)  kcals/kg/day and  g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased () during the high protein phase to  kcals/kg/day and  g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d) for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass. Jose Antonio, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Leonel Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Richard Buehn, and Corey A. Peacock Copyright © 2016 Jose Antonio et al. All rights reserved. Malnutrition: The Importance of Identification, Documentation, and Coding in the Acute Care Setting Wed, 28 Sep 2016 10:25:16 +0000 Malnutrition is a significant issue in the hospital setting. This cross-sectional, observational study determined the prevalence of malnutrition amongst 189 adult inpatients in a teaching hospital using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool and compared data to control groups for coding of malnutrition to determine the estimated unclaimed financial reimbursement associated with this comorbidity. Fifty-three percent of inpatients were classified as malnourished. Significant associations were found between malnutrition and increasing age, decreasing body mass index, and increased length of stay. Ninety-eight percent of malnourished patients were coded as malnourished in medical records. The results of the medical history audit of patients in control groups showed that between 0.9 and 5.4% of patients were coded as malnourished which is remarkably lower than the 52% of patients who were coded as malnourished from the point prevalence study data. This is most likely to be primarily due to lack of identification. The estimated unclaimed annual financial reimbursement due to undiagnosed or undocumented malnutrition based on the point prevalence study was AU$8,536,200. The study found that half the patients were malnourished, with older adults being particularly vulnerable. It is imperative that malnutrition is diagnosed and accurately documented and coded, so appropriate coding, funding reimbursement, and treatment can occur. Jane Kellett, Greg Kyle, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Mark Naunton, and Narelle Luff Copyright © 2016 Jane Kellett et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Treatment with Salsalate, Menhaden Oil, Combination of Salsalate and Menhaden Oil, or Resolvin D1 of C57Bl/6J Type 1 Diabetic Mouse on Neuropathic Endpoints Wed, 28 Sep 2016 06:11:13 +0000 Aims. In this study a streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of salsalate, menhaden oil, the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil, or resolvin D1 on neuropathic endpoints. Materials and Methods. Changes in body weight, blood glucose, serum markers for triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and resolvin D1, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and thermal sensitivity were assessed, as well as performing in vivo confocal microscopy of subepithelial corneal nerves and immunohistochemistry of nerves in the cornea and foot pad. Results. Diabetic animals failed to gain weight and had elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetic mice had slowed nerve conduction velocity, reduced innervation of the foot pad and cornea subepithelial and epithelial layers, and reduced thermal sensitivity. Monotherapy treatment with salsalate, menhaden oil, and resolvin D1 reduced the pathological signs of diabetic neuropathy. The combination of salsalate and menhaden oil also reduced signs of pathology and generated elevated plasma levels of resolvin D1 compared to other groups. Conclusions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil may be more efficacious than monotherapy alone for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Matthew S. Yorek, Lawrence J. Coppey, Hanna Shevalye, Alexander Obrosov, Randy H. Kardon, and Mark A. Yorek Copyright © 2016 Matthew S. Yorek et al. All rights reserved. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:16:36 +0000 The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, years old, :    mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  . All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample -tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK:  kJ versus NoBK:  kJ; ) and evening (BK:  kJ versus NoBK: ; ) energy intake and RQ (BK: versus NoBK: ; ) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise ( versus  mmol/L; ). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. Jessica L. Bachman, Ronald W. Deitrick, and Angela R. Hillman Copyright © 2016 Jessica L. Bachman et al. All rights reserved. Schoolchildren with Learning Difficulties Have Low Iron Status and High Anemia Prevalence Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:44:08 +0000 Background. In developing countries there is high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, which reduces cognitive performance, work performance, and endurance; it also causes learning difficulties and negative impact on development for infant population. Methods. The study concerns a case-control study; data was collected from an appropriate sample consisting of schoolchildren aged 8 years. The sample was divided into two subgroups: those with deficient initial reading skills (DIRS) (case) and those without (control). Blood samples were taken to analyze hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. These results were then used to compare the two groups with Student’s -test. Association between DIRS and anemia was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of schoolchildren with DIRS were statistically lower when compared to those without, hemoglobin and serum ferritin . DIRS was statistically associated with a risk of anemia with a weighted OR of 1.62. Conclusions. In this study, schoolchildren with DIRS had lower hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels when compared to those without. F. P. N. Arcanjo, C. P. C. Arcanjo, and P. R. Santos Copyright © 2016 F. P. N. Arcanjo et al. All rights reserved. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study Wed, 17 Aug 2016 08:52:34 +0000 Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, ; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, ; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). Jonathan M. Oliver, Lee Stoner, David S. Rowlands, Aaron R. Caldwell, Elizabeth Sanders, Andreas Kreutzer, Joel B. Mitchell, Martin Purpura, and Ralf Jäger Copyright © 2016 Jonathan M. Oliver et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition: From Bench to Bedside Wed, 10 Aug 2016 09:32:41 +0000 Naim A. Khan, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Aziz Hichami, and Najat Mokhtar Copyright © 2016 Naim A. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids Mon, 27 Jun 2016 15:52:15 +0000 Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [; age: years; BMI:  kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all ). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. Arpita Basu, Stacy Morris, Angel Nguyen, Nancy M. Betts, Dongxu Fu, and Timothy J. Lyons Copyright © 2016 Arpita Basu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:17:26 +0000 Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group () which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention. Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (; , resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (), TNF-α (), and hs-CRP (). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 () in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control. Sadegh Jafarnejad, Sadaf Saremi, Farzan Jafarnejad, and Arman Arab Copyright © 2016 Sadegh Jafarnejad et al. All rights reserved. Increased Gustatory Response Score in Obesity and Association Levels with IL-6 and Leptin Thu, 16 Jun 2016 06:58:08 +0000 Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; ). Moreover, IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with GRS alteration among patients with GRS 4 (resp., OR =17.5 [95% CI, 1.56–193.32; ]; OR = 16 [95% CI, 1.69–151.11; ]). For the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate (MH OR), IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with obesity, in patients with either GRS 4 or GRS > 4 (resp., MH OR = 8.77 [95% CI, 2.06–37.44; ]; MH OR = 5.76 [95% CI, 1.64–20.24; ]). Conclusions. In a low grade inflammation linked to obesity, taste alteration is associated with high levels of IL-6 and leptin. Nesrine Remla, Zeyneb Hadjidj, Kamel Ghezzaz, Soraya Moulessehoul, and Mourad Aribi Copyright © 2016 Nesrine Remla et al. All rights reserved. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children Thu, 09 Jun 2016 09:18:28 +0000 Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age -score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8). Children who had low weight-for-height -scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting) especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height -score (WHZ) was associated with 0.07 standard units’ increase in height-for-age -score (HAZ) [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15)]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth. Mahama Saaka and Sylvester Zackaria Galaa Copyright © 2016 Mahama Saaka and Sylvester Zackaria Galaa. All rights reserved. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions Mon, 30 May 2016 13:45:27 +0000 Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 ( value = 0.01)]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings. Omar K. Danner, Leslie R. Matthews, Sharon Francis, Veena N. Rao, Cassie P. Harvey, Richard P. Tobin, Ken L. Wilson, Ernest Alema-Mensah, M. Karen Newell Rogers, and Ed W. Childs Copyright © 2016 Omar K. Danner et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Glycomacropeptide in Dietary Management of Phenylketonuria Mon, 30 May 2016 06:49:28 +0000 Dietary therapy is the most common therapy applied in treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) with restriction of intake of most natural proteins that are rich in Phenylalanine (Phe). Recently, it has been claimed that caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP), derived of whey, may be used to replace the amino acid formulae (AAF). The Aim of Work. To study the feasibility of use of GMP for partial replacement of artificial formula in treatment of children with PKU. Methods. Ten patients with PKU were included in the study. They received the recommended daily allowances of protein in the form of AAF or a combination of AAF and GMP. The percent of intake of GMP in phases 1 and 2 was 50% and zero%, respectively. Results. The median and interquartiles of phenyl alanine Phe levels phase were not significantly different in phases I and II, 376 (167–551) μmol/L versus 490 (289–597) μmol/L, respectively. Phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, amino acids, and other laboratory data showed no significant difference between the two phases. Conclusion. GMP may be used to replace 50% of the protein intake to improve the nutritive value and palatability of diet and to provide a more satisfactory diet. No toxicity or side effects were reported in patients on that regimen. Osama K. Zaki, Lamia El-Wakeel, Yasmin Ebeid, Hanan S. Ez Elarab, Aisha Moustafa, Nayera Abdulazim, Hala Karara, and Ahmed Elghawaby Copyright © 2016 Osama K. Zaki et al. All rights reserved. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats Tue, 24 May 2016 13:59:47 +0000 Background. Omega-3 (3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of 3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with 3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations), histological (Fluoro jade staining), and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS) evaluations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as the post hoc test. Results. Ischemia increased the locomotor activity and rearing behavior that were partly reversed by 3. Ischemia decreased striatal DA and DOPAC contents and increased NE contents, effects reversed by 3. This drug protected hippocampal neuron degeneration, as observed by Fluoro-Jade staining, and the increased immunostainings for TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS were partly or totally blocked by 3. Conclusion. This study showed a neuroprotective effect of 3, in great part due to its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating translational studies focusing on its use in clinic for stroke managing. Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Francisco Nilson Maciel Mendonça, Luiz Ricardo Araújo Uchoa, Jessica Tamara Nunes Vasconcelos, Carlos Ney Alencar de Araújo, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro Siqueira, Gilberto dos Santos Cerqueira, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Ricardo Mário Arida, and Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana Copyright © 2016 Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre et al. All rights reserved. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia Tue, 24 May 2016 06:55:51 +0000 Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A. Hichami, O. Grissa, I. Mrizak, C. Benammar, and N. A. Khan Copyright © 2016 A. Hichami et al. All rights reserved. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives Mon, 23 May 2016 09:34:12 +0000 Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Vijaya Juturu Copyright © 2016 Vijaya Juturu. All rights reserved. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey Mon, 16 May 2016 12:12:17 +0000 Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98). The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8), with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted. Elena Hadjimbei, George Botsaris, Vassilis Gekas, and Andrie G. Panayiotou Copyright © 2016 Elena Hadjimbei et al. All rights reserved. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders Thu, 12 May 2016 07:01:04 +0000 Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; ). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. Elizabeth K. Parker, Sahrish S. Faruquie, Gail Anderson, Linette Gomes, Andrew Kennedy, Christine M. Wearne, Michael R. Kohn, and Simon D. Clarke Copyright © 2016 Elizabeth K. Parker et al. All rights reserved. Active Holistic Surveillance: The Nutritional Aspect of Delayed Intervention in Prostate Cancer Thu, 05 May 2016 11:30:30 +0000 Purpose. Active surveillance is an emergent strategy for management of indolent prostate cancer. Our institution’s watchful waiting protocol, Active Holistic Surveillance (AHS), implements close monitoring for disease progression along with various chemopreventive agents and attempts to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Our objective is to report on the treatment rates of men on our AHS protocol as well as determine reasons for progression. Materials/Methods. Low risk and low-intermediate risk patients were enrolled in AHS at Winthrop University Hospital between February 2002 and August 2015. Our IRB-approved study analyzed survival rate, discontinuation rates, and definitive treatments for patients in our AHS cohort. Results. 235 patients met inclusion criteria. Median age and follow-up for the cohort were 66 (44–88) years and 42 (3–166) months, respectively. The overall survival for the cohort was 99.6% and the disease specific survival was 100%. A total of 27 (11.5%) patients discontinued AHS. Conclusion. The incorporation of chemopreventive agents in our AHS protocol has allowed patients to prolong definitive treatment for many years. Longer follow-up and additional studies are necessary to further validate the effectiveness of AHS. Courtney J. Berg, David J. Habibian, Aaron E. Katz, Kaitlin E. Kosinski, Anthony T. Corcoran, and Andrew S. Fontes Copyright © 2016 Courtney J. Berg et al. All rights reserved. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis Wed, 20 Apr 2016 09:49:00 +0000 Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE) calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%). Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285. Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen, Saskia J. H. Brinkmann, Nikki Buijs, Albertus Beishuizen, Pierre M. Bet, Alexander P. J. Houdijk, Johannes B. van Goudoever, and Paul A. M. van Leeuwen Copyright © 2016 Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen et al. All rights reserved. Cocobiota: Implications for Human Health Wed, 06 Apr 2016 11:33:26 +0000 Manufacturing of dark chocolate and other cocoa-based products is a complex multistage process beginning with spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation driven in the postharvest period by different microorganisms derived from the environment. Cocobiota defined as the association of microbial species involved in cocoa bean fermentation may have considerable impact on the medicinal properties of cocoa products via various primary and secondary metabolites, whose presence in dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products has to be taken into consideration when analyzing medicinal effects of cocoa. Metabolites of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, two major cocobiota members, are recently shown to have considerable antifungal and cholesterol-lowering activities and promote the formation of short chain fatty acids and mannitol, an important prebiotic capable of modifying gut microbiota. Penicillium citrinum, a major type of fungi identifiable in fermented cocoa beans, produces a thermostable alkaloid, Penicitrinine A, as well as lovastatin, compounds with antineoplastic and cholesterol-lowering abilities, respectively. Moreover, recent results suggest that bacterial and fungal metabolites produced by cocobiota have a significant anti-infective potential. Therefore, various metabolites produced by cocobiota can mimic some medicinal effects of dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products previously attributed to cocoa flavonoids and methylxanthines and need to be thoroughly investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov Copyright © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Glucose Absorption by Feruloylated Arabinoxylan Mono- and Oligosaccharides from Corn Bran and Wheat Aleurone Thu, 17 Mar 2016 16:33:37 +0000 The effect of feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (FAXmo) on mammalian α-glucosidase and glucose transporters was investigated using human Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal acetone powder, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. The isolated FAXmo from wheat aleurone and corn bran were identified to have degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 1, respectively, by HPLC-MS. Both FAXmo extracts were effective inhibitors of sucrase and maltase functions of the α-glucosidase. The IC50 for FAXmo extracts on Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal α-glucosidase was 1.03–1.65 mg/mL and 2.6–6.5 mg/mL, respectively. Similarly, glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells was inhibited up to 40%. The inhibitory effect of FAXmo was dependent on their ferulic acid (FA) content ( = 0.95). Sodium independent glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) activity was completely inhibited by FAXmo in oocytes injected to express GLUT2. Our results suggest that ferulic acid and feruloylated arabinoxylan mono-/oligosaccharides have potential for use in diabetes management. Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Peter Eck, and Trust Beta Copyright © 2016 Lovemore Nkhata Malunga et al. All rights reserved. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco Wed, 16 Mar 2016 13:17:49 +0000 Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region. Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou, Mehdi Azlaf, Imane El Menchawy, Mohamed El Mzibri, Khalid El Kari, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Fatima-Zahra Mouzouni, Amina Barkat, and Hassan Aguenaou Copyright © 2016 Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou et al. All rights reserved. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:35:06 +0000 Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% () to 34.6% () in the APAP and 46.3% () to 29.9% () in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Breanna Moore, Mei Hong, Sabrina Cleveland, Min Chu, Qi Jia, Young-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Eu-Jin Hyun, Gayoung Jung, and Seon Gil Do Copyright © 2016 Mesfin Yimam et al. All rights reserved. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) Tue, 19 Jan 2016 18:31:38 +0000 Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. Shunsuke Kano, Haruna Komada, Lina Yonekura, Akihiko Sato, Hisashi Nishiwaki, and Hirotoshi Tamura Copyright © 2016 Shunsuke Kano et al. All rights reserved. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia Tue, 19 Jan 2016 09:14:28 +0000 Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. Daniel B. Hoffmann, Markus H. Griesel, Bastian Brockhusen, Mohammad Tezval, Marina Komrakova, Bjoern Menger, Marco Wassmann, Klaus Michael Stuermer, and Stephan Sehmisch Copyright © 2016 Daniel B. Hoffmann et al. All rights reserved. Breakfast Protein Source Does Not Influence Postprandial Appetite Response and Food Intake in Normal Weight and Overweight Young Women Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:18:20 +0000 Breakfasts higher in protein lead to a greater reduction in hunger compared to breakfasts higher in carbohydrate. However, few studies have examined the impact of higher protein breakfasts with differing protein sources. Our objective was to determine if protein source (animal protein (AP) versus plant protein (PP)) influences postprandial metabolic response in participants consuming a high protein breakfast (~30% energy from protein). Normal weight (NW; ) and overweight women (OW; ) aging 18–36 were recruited to participate. Participants completed two visits in a randomized, cross-over design with one week between visits. Subjects had 15 minutes to consume each breakfast. Blood glucose and appetite were assessed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes postprandial. Participants kept a 24-hour dietary record for the duration of each test day. No difference was found between NW and OW participants or breakfasts for postprandial appetite responses. AP had a significantly lower glucose response at 30 minutes compared with PP (−11.6%; 127 ± 4 versus 112 ± 4 mg/dL; ) and a slower return to baseline. There was no difference in daily energy intake between breakfasts. These data suggest that protein source may influence postprandial glucose response without significantly impacting appetite response in breakfast consumers. Christina M. Crowder, Brianna L. Neumann, and Jamie I. Baum Copyright © 2016 Christina M. Crowder et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum sessiliflorum (Cubiu) Extract: An In Vitro Assay Tue, 15 Dec 2015 09:29:55 +0000 Cubiu is a vegetable of Solanaceae family, native to the Amazon, which is widely distributed through Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. It is used in food, medicine, and cosmetics by native populations. Research has shown that cubiu extracts have antioxidant activities with great biological relevance. We performed a phytochemical screening to identify the main chemical groups that could confer antioxidant activity to this extract. Several tests and qualitative precipitation specific staining for major classes of secondary metabolites were used. Antioxidant capacity in vitro tests (DPPH and ABTS) were also used to assess the extract’s ability to sequester free radicals of 70% hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of cubiu flour. Alkaloids, organic acids, phenols, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins were found in the hydroethanolic extract while the aqueous extract presented anthocyanins, gums, tannins and mucilage, amino groups, and volatile and fixed acids. For in vitro tests, the value obtained in the DPPH assay was 606.3 ± 3.5 μg/mL while that for the ABTS assay was 290.3 ± 10.7 µg/mL. Although cubiu extracts present chemical compounds directly related to antioxidant activity, our results show that it has a low antioxidant activity. Additional studies will be needed to isolate and characterize specific compounds to further assess antioxidant activity. Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato, Janice B. Monteiro, Michele M. Passarinho, Denise Morais Lopes Galeno, Rubén J. Cruz, Carmen Ortiz, Luisa Morales, Emerson Silva Lima, and Rosany Piccolotto Carvalho Copyright © 2015 Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato et al. All rights reserved.