Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Antiglycemic Effect of Water Extractable Arabinoxylan from Wheat Aleurone and Bran Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration. WEAX inhibited α-glucosidase activity only when maltose was used as a substrate but not sucrose. The IC50 values of WEAX (– mg/mL) were highly correlated to ferulic acid content (), arabinose to xylose ratio (), and relative proportions of xylose being unsubstituted (), disubstituted (), and monosubstituted (). The Lineweaver–Burk plot suggested an uncompetitive enzyme inhibition mode. Thus, our results suggest that antiglycemic properties of WEAX may be derived from direct inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, and Trust Beta Copyright © 2017 Lovemore Nkhata Malunga et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria Thu, 04 May 2017 07:55:41 +0000 Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL) of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (). Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% () and magnesium by 30% (). Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at as NCT01428258. Bridget M. Stroup, Emily A. Sawin, Sangita G. Murali, Neil Binkley, Karen E. Hansen, and Denise M. Ney Copyright © 2017 Bridget M. Stroup et al. All rights reserved. Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Components on Lipodystrophy Different Subtypes Associated with HIV Sun, 30 Apr 2017 06:54:20 +0000 HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed. They performed ambulatorial follow-up and used ART regularly. The main findings were greater lipid profile alterations among women, while no metabolic profile differences were found between the HALS subtypes. The lipohypertrophy group showed major alterations, with higher values for total body fat percent, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), and abdominal and neck circumferences when compared to the other groups. Lean body mass was superior only compared to the mixed lipodystrophy group, and fat mass only compared to the lipoatrophy group. BMI showed strong correlation with the VFA. In conclusion, despite anthropometric alterations related to HALS these individuals present, those are not accompanied with metabolic alterations. Strategies, as behavioral changes and disorders prevention, are important to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease development. Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, and Sílvia Justina Papini Copyright © 2017 Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8%) were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%). Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%), amino acids (16.8%), multivitamins (16.8%), creatine (11.5%), and omega 3 (11.5%). The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%), increase health (44.2%), and improve performance (41.5%). Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia. Ayman H. Jawadi, Abdulmalik M. Addar, Abdulaziz S. Alazzam, Fahad O. Alrabieah, Abdullah S. Al Alsheikh, Roaa R. Amer, Al Anoud S. Aldrees, Maha A. Al Turki, Ali K. Osman, and Motasim Badri Copyright © 2017 Ayman H. Jawadi et al. All rights reserved. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition. Edgar Weigand and Jennifer Egenolf Copyright © 2017 Edgar Weigand and Jennifer Egenolf. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Sarcopenic Obesity in Adults with Class II/III Obesity Using Different Diagnostic Criteria Wed, 22 Mar 2017 09:03:24 +0000 Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST) in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) using different diagnostic criteria. Methods. SO definitions were identified from a literature review of studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess LST. Demographics, anthropometrics, and body composition (by DXA) were measured in , 86% female (46.9 ± 11.1 years). Results. LST was extremely variable in individuals, even with similar body sizes, and observed across the age spectrum. The prevalence of SO ranged from 0 to 84.5% in females and 0 to 100% in males, depending upon the definition applied, with higher prevalence among definitions accounting for measures of body size or fat mass. Conclusion. SO is present, yet variable, in adults with class II/III obesity. Accounting for body mass or fat mass may identify a higher number of individuals with SO, although risk prediction remains to be studied. Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa, Arya M. Sharma, Mary Forhan, Mario Siervo, Raj S. Padwal, and Carla M. Prado Copyright © 2017 Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa et al. All rights reserved. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon Tue, 21 Mar 2017 08:14:14 +0000 Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5–14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children. Germine El-Kassas and Fouad Ziade Copyright © 2017 Germine El-Kassas and Fouad Ziade. All rights reserved. Insulin Resistance and Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Aims. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which can evolve towards devastating micro- and macrovascular complications. DM is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Insulin resistance plays an important role in the natural history of type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of CKD in T1DM and the correlation with insulin resistance (IR) in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted over a period of three years (2010–2013) and included patients with DM registered in the Clinical Centre of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases of Dolj county. The study design was an epidemiological, transversal, noninterventional type. Finally, the study group included 200 subjects with type 1 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by eGDR. The subjects with eGDR ≤ 7.5 mg/kg/min were considered with insulin resistance. Results. CKD was found in 44% of the patients. Analyzing statistically the presence of CKD, we found highly significant differences between patients with CKD and those without CKD regarding age and sex of the patients, the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and the presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricaemia. In patients with CKD, age and diabetes duration are significantly higher than in those who do not have this complication. CKD is more frequent in males than in females (50.9% men versus 34.5% women, ). From the elements of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, hyperuricemia, and dyslipidemia are significantly increased in diabetic patients with CKD. eGDR value (expressed as mg·kg−1·min−1) is lower in patients with CKD than in those without CKD (15.92 versus 6.42, ) indicating the fact that patients with CKD show higher insulin resistance than those without CKD. Conclusions. This study has shown that insulin resistance is associated with an increased risk of CKD, but, due to the cross-sectional design, the causal relationship cannot be assessed. However, the existence of this causality and the treatment benefit of insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes are issues for further discussion. Mihaela Vladu, Diana Clenciu, Ion Cristian Efrem, Mircea-Cătalin Forțofoiu, Anca Amzolini, Simona Tudorică Micu, Maria Moţa, and Maria Forțofoiu Copyright © 2017 Mihaela Vladu et al. All rights reserved. Bedside Ultrasound Measurement of Rectus Femoris: A Tutorial for the Nutrition Support Clinician Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:15:20 +0000 Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a long-term consequence after critical illness; it has been related to muscle atrophy and can be considered as one of the main nutritional support challenges at the intensive care unit. Measuring muscle mass by image techniques has become a new area of research for the nutritional support field, extending our knowledge about muscle wasting and the impact of nutritional approaches in the critical care setting, although currently there is no universally accepted technique to perform muscle measurements by ultrasound. Because of this, we present this tutorial for nutrition support clinicians, in order to understand and perform muscle measurements by this reliable, accessible, low-cost, and easy-to-use technique. Reviewing issues such as quadriceps muscle anatomy, correct technique (do’s and don’ts), identification of structures, and measurement of the rectus femoris and vastus intermedius muscles helps to acquire the basic concepts of this technique and encouraging more research in this field. Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín, Enrique Monares Zepeda, and Octavio Augusto Lescas Méndez Copyright © 2017 Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín et al. All rights reserved. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence Sun, 05 Mar 2017 08:48:23 +0000 Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM) in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity. Ina Bähr, Vincent Goritz, Henriette Doberstein, Grit Gesine Ruth Hiller, Philip Rosenstock, Janine Jahn, Ole Pörtner, Tobias Berreis, Thomas Mueller, Julia Spielmann, and Heike Kielstein Copyright © 2017 Ina Bähr et al. All rights reserved. Growth of Infants with Intestinal Failure or Feeding Intolerance Does Not Follow Standard Growth Curves Sun, 05 Mar 2017 08:10:59 +0000 Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014. Weekly weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities were calculated. Growth data were compared to Olsen growth curves to determine exact percentiles. Results. Data from infants () revealed that average growth velocities of 3-month-old infants (weight gain, 19.97 g/d; length, 0.81 cm/week; head circumference, 0.52 cm/week) fluctuated and all were below expected norms. At discharge or death, average growth velocities had further decreased (length, 0.69 cm/week; head circumference, 0.45 cm/week) except for weight, which showed a slight increase (weight, 20.56 g/d). Weight, length, and head circumference percentiles significantly decreased from birth to 40-week PMA (). Conclusions. Growth of infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance did not follow standard growth curves. Danielle L. Morton, Keli M. Hawthorne, and Carolyn E. Moore Copyright © 2017 Danielle L. Morton et al. All rights reserved. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin Copyright © 2017 Alam Zeb and Islam Uddin. All rights reserved. The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Total PYY and GLP-1 in Healthy Females: A Pilot Study Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  ); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec “all-out” cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points. There was a session × time interaction for GLP-1 () where SIT and MICT ( and ) were higher compared to CTRL both immediately and 90 min after exercise. There was a main effect of time for PYY where 90 min after exercise it was decreased versus before and immediately after exercise. There was a session × time interaction for hunger with lower ratings following SIT versus MICT () and CTRL () 90 min after exercise. These results suggest that though GLP-1 is elevated after exercise in women, it is not affected by exercise intensity though hunger was lower 90 min after exercise with SIT. As the sample size is small further study is needed to confirm these findings. Jillian R. Hallworth, Jennifer L. Copeland, Jon Doan, and Tom J. Hazell Copyright © 2017 Jillian R. Hallworth et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Parathyroid Hormone Concentration in Brazilians Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamins are organic compounds that play a vital role in the control of metabolic processes. The D complex is considered a nutrient with a hormonal action and has an important participation in the constant maintenance of serum and extracellular calcium levels. The present study aims to analyze the results of 105.588 vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements obtained from a database from a clinical analysis laboratory in Brazil, between the years of 2011 and 2013. The values of 25(OH)D were correlated with age, gender, and values of PTH. The results show a high prevalence of values of 25(OH)D considered inadequate, characterizing 76% of the studied population. It was observed that 26,5% of the individuals had deficiency and 49,5% had insufficiency of vitamin D. It was also shown that there was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and PTH levels. In conclusion, this study is in accordance with others that show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different populations and alerts us for the importance of these measurements and analysis in clinical practice and as a base for diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis. Juliana Sálvio Martins, Magda de Oliveira Palhares, Octávio Cury Mayrink Teixeira, and Mariana Gontijo Ramos Copyright © 2017 Juliana Sálvio Martins et al. All rights reserved. A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active Individuals Tue, 24 Jan 2017 12:20:59 +0000 Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels. Participants performed an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill (3 min warm-up of 40% peak oxygen consumption, 4 min at 90% of gas exchange threshold I and 70% (Δ) maximal end speed until volitional fatigue). Results. Urinary levels of nitrite and nitrate increased after 90 min of beetroot gel ingestion. Plasma glucose concentrations lowered after the exercise and the decrease was maintained for 20 min. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum cortisol, and blood lactate were not altered after the beetroot gel ingestion compared to a placebo gel. Conclusion. The single dose of beetroot gel provoked an increase of nitric oxide synthesis although no improvement on the physical performance of athletes during aerobic submaximal exercise was observed. Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Thiago Silveira Alvares, and Vânia M. Flosi Paschoalin Copyright © 2017 Julia Vasconcellos et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of  g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly () among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences () being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. Shola Gabriel Solomon, Gabriel Arome Ataguba, and Gabriel Enemona Itodo Copyright © 2017 Shola Gabriel Solomon et al. All rights reserved. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate () increases NO formation, via reduction to nitrite () by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index:  kg/m2 (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults ( kg/m2) ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g), with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit reduction to . Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes (). Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity), was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults (). Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese ( versus ) but not in nonobese ( versus ) adults (). In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals. Joseph W. Beals, Scott E. Binns, Janelle L. Davis, Gregory R. Giordano, Anna L. Klochak, Hunter L. Paris, Melani M. Schweder, Garrett L. Peltonen, Rebecca L. Scalzo, and Christopher Bell Copyright © 2017 Joseph W. Beals et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana. Mahama Saaka, Jeremiah Oladele, Asamoah Larbi, and Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon Copyright © 2017 Mahama Saaka et al. All rights reserved. Plasma and Aorta Biochemistry and MMPs Activities in Female Rabbit Fed Methionine Enriched Diet and Their Offspring Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:37:46 +0000 This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each ), nonpregnant control (NPC), pregnant control (PC) that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet), and pregnant Met (PMet) that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w) for 3 months (500 mg/d). All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies. Plasma results showed that Met excess increased Hcy, raised CRP in NPMet and decreased it in PMet, enhanced significantly proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities in NPMet, and reduced them in PMet. Aorta showed a rise in collagen level, essentially in PMet, a reduction of elastin content in both PMet and NPMet, and a significant decrease in lipid content in PMet, with histological changes that are more pronounced in NPMet than PMet. Met excess enhanced proMMP-9 activities in NPMet while it decreased them in PMet. PMet newborn presented increase in uremia and CRP and significant rise of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 forms. In aorta, media and adventitia thickness increased, total lipids content decreased, proMMP-9 activity decreased, and proMMP-2 activity increased. Khira Othmani Mecif, Souhila Aouichat Bouguerra, and Yasmina Benazzoug Copyright © 2017 Khira Othmani Mecif et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Compliance with Nutritional Counselling on Body Composition Parameters in Head and Neck Cancer Patients under Radiotherapy Mon, 02 Jan 2017 07:17:01 +0000 Background. Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with increased risk of malnutrition in cancer patients, particularly in those with head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of compliance of patients with individual dietary counselling on body composition parameters in HNC patients under RT. Material and Methods. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (mean age: ) were prospectively followed. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to determine body composition parameters before, in the middle of, and at the end of RT. All patients received nutritional counselling and majority of them (94.6%) received oral nutritional supplement (ONS) during RT or chemoradiotherapy. If a patient consumed ≥75% of the recommended energy and protein intake via ONS and regular food, he/she was considered to be “compliant” (), while those who failed to meet this criteria were considered to be “noncompliant” (). Results. Body mass index, weight, fat percentage, fat mass, fat free mass, and muscle mass did not decrease significantly over time in compliant patients, but in noncompliant patients, all of these indices decreased significantly from baseline compared to the end of treatment (). Hand grip strength did not differ significantly between the two groups at baseline and over time in each group. When retrospectively evaluated, heavy mucositis was less commonly observed in compliant than noncompliant patients (11.1% versus 88.9%, resp.) (). Conclusion. We conclude that body composition parameters were better in head and neck cancer patients considered as compliant with nutritional counselling than noncompliant ones during RT period. D. Hopanci Bicakli, O. Ozkaya Akagunduz, R. Meseri Dalak, M. Esassolak, R. Uslu, and M. Uyar Copyright © 2017 D. Hopanci Bicakli et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Habits of Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Variety and Frequency of Food Intake Thu, 22 Dec 2016 14:33:29 +0000 The objective of the present study was to observe the dietary patterns and food frequencies of type 2 diabetes patients attending the clinics of the Family Practice Center of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, located in a highly urbanized area in Sri Lanka. An interviewer administered questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 100 type 2 diabetes patients [age 35–70 years; mean age (males = 44; females = 56)]. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 software. Vegetables, fatty foods, and poultry consumption were in accordance with the national guidelines. A significant percentage (45.5%) consumed rice mixed meals for all three meals and only 67% consumed fruits at least once a day. Majority (71%) consumed full-cream milk and sugar intake (77%) was in accordance with the guidelines. Noncaloric sweetener usage was nonexistent. Daily green leafy vegetable intake and the quantity consumed were inadequate to obtain beneficial effects. From the study population, 44% [females 50%; males 36%] of the patients were either overweight or obese. However, only 60% of those patients accepted that they were either overweight or obese. Only 14% exercised daily while 69% never exercised. Study revealed the importance of educating patients with type 2 diabetes on dietary changes and more importantly the involvement in regular physical exercises. Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Sagarika Ekanayake, and Chandanie Wanigatunge Copyright © 2016 Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera et al. All rights reserved. Downregulation of PGC-1α Prevents the Beneficial Effect of EET-Heme Oxygenase-1 on Mitochondrial Integrity and Associated Metabolic Function in Obese Mice Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:03:18 +0000 Background/Objectives. Obesity and metabolic syndrome and associated adiposity are a systemic condition characterized by increased mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and inhibition of antioxidant genes, HO-1, and EETs levels. We postulate that EETs attenuate adiposity by stimulating mitochondrial function and induction of HO-1 via activation of PGC-1α in adipose and hepatic tissue. Methods. Cultured murine adipocytes and mice fed a high fat (HF) diet were used to assess the functional relationship among EETs, PGC-1α, HO-1, and mitochondrial signaling using an EET-agonist (EET-A) and PGC-1α-deficient cells and mice using lentiviral PGC-1α(sh). Results. EET-A is a potent inducer of PGC-1α, HO-1, mitochondrial biogenesis (cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 4 and SIRT3), fusion proteins (Mfn and OPA1) and fission proteins (DRP1 and FIS1) (), fasting glucose, BW, and blood pressure. These beneficial effects were prevented by administration of lenti-PGC-1α(sh). EET-A administration prevented HF diet induced mitochondrial and dysfunction in adipose tissue and restored VO2 effects that were abrogated in PGC-1α-deficient mice. Conclusion. EET is identified as an upstream positive regulator of PGC-1α that leads to increased HO-1, decreased BW and fasting blood glucose and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation, that is, increased insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial integrity, and possible use of EET-agonist for treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Shailendra P. Singh, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Jian Cao, John R. Falck, Attallah Kappas, and Nader G. Abraham Copyright © 2016 Shailendra P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study Mon, 19 Dec 2016 14:34:24 +0000 The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants ( years) were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH) training () and normobaric normoxic (NN) training () groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid), plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX]), arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE), and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO) were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size) after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players. Carlos Burgos, Carlos Henríquez-Olguín, David Cristóbal Andrade, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oscar F. Araneda, Allan White, and Hugo Cerda-Kohler Copyright © 2016 Carlos Burgos et al. All rights reserved. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L.) Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health Wed, 07 Dec 2016 08:27:17 +0000 Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts. Souleymane Abdoul-Azize Copyright © 2016 Souleymane Abdoul-Azize. All rights reserved. Ghanaians Might Be at Risk of Inadequate Dietary Intake of Potassium Tue, 06 Dec 2016 14:25:15 +0000 Adequate dietary intake of potassium (K) helps fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This paper (i) estimated the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compared this estimate with the WHO recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate K intake. Food supply data (1961–2011) was obtained from the FAO Food Balance Sheet (FBS) to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate dietary intake of K. The K contents of the food items were obtained from food composition databases. The mean K supply per capita per day was approximately 856 mg. The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of inadequate dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K deficiency, including assessment of K supplying power of soils and K fertilizer management in food crop production systems, as well as empirical estimates of K content of food items (including those underreported in the FBS) and mixed diets in Ghana. David Oscar Yawson, Michael Osei Adu, Benjamin Ason, Frederick Ato Armah, Emmanuel Boateng, and Reggie Quansah Copyright © 2016 David Oscar Yawson et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Lipoxygenase Inhibitor Baicalein on Muscles in Ovariectomized Rats Mon, 05 Dec 2016 14:52:31 +0000 Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass accompanying osteoporosis, leads to falls and fall-related injuries. Baicalein, as a phytochemical agent, has an antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect in muscle. In this study, sixty-one female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: four groups were ovariectomized (OVX) and one control group was nonovariectomized (NON-OVX). Eight weeks after ovariectomy, three disparate concentrations (1 mg/kg body weight (BW), 10 mg/kg BW, and 100 mg/kg BW) of baicalein were applied subcutaneously daily in three OVX groups. Mm. soleus, gastrocnemius, and longissimus were extracted; their diameter, area, relation to body, and muscle weights as well as number of capillaries per fibre were recorded. In Mm. soleus and gastrocnemius, the baicalein effect (increasing number of capillaries per fibre) was proportional to the dose applied. The fibre diameters and area under baicalein treatment were significantly greater compared to OVX and NON-OVX groups. In M. longissimus, we observed a shift to type IIa fibres. Serum creatine kinase levels were significantly lower in highest baicalein concentration group. We conclude that baicalein can stimulate angiogenesis, though not fibre type-specific, in skeletal muscle and reduce the estrogen-related loss of fibre diameter and area in the skeletal muscle in rats. Therefore, a protective effect of baicalein on muscle cells can be assumed. D. Saul, J. H. Kling, R. L. Kosinsky, D. B. Hoffmann, M. Komrakova, M. Wicke, B. Menger, and S. Sehmisch Copyright © 2016 D. Saul et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Locally Delivered Vitamin C in the Treatment of Persistent Gingival Inflammation: Clinical and Histopathological Study Mon, 05 Dec 2016 07:48:26 +0000 Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role and efficiency of the locally injected vitamin C in the treatment of persistent gingival inflammation. Design. Twenty adult patients with persistent chronic gingival inflammation were included in this study. The same dose of sterile vitamin C was injected in gingival tissues after the completion of phase I therapy. Gingival biopsies were taken after total resolution of inflammation. The specimens were examined histologically, using H&E stain. Results. Clinical evaluation revealed great improvement of the injected sites with recall visits. Histopathological results revealed marked decrease in inflammatory cells and epithelial thickness and a higher number of newly formed subbasal capillaries. Conclusions. Vitamin C is an effective adjunctive treatment in reducing various degrees of chronic gingival inflammation. Nermin M. Yussif, Manar A. Abdul Aziz, and Ahmed R. Abdel Rahman Copyright © 2016 Nermin M. Yussif et al. All rights reserved. Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia Wed, 09 Nov 2016 06:22:32 +0000 Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups—Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate). The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69). Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Whye Lian Cheah, Ching Thon Chang, Helmy Hazmi, and Wan Manan Wan Muda Copyright © 2016 Whye Lian Cheah et al. All rights reserved. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes Mon, 31 Oct 2016 09:09:28 +0000 Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%). The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%). Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors. Ashley Andrews, Janet R. Wojcik, Joni M. Boyd, and Charles J. Bowers Copyright © 2016 Ashley Andrews et al. All rights reserved. Serum Metabolomic Response to Long-Term Supplementation with all-rac-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in a Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 20 Oct 2016 11:55:10 +0000 Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA), 20 mg/day -carotene, both, placebo). Methods. Metabolomic profiling was conducted on baseline and follow-up fasting serum (Metabolon, Inc.). Results. After correction for multiple comparisons, five metabolites were statistically significantly altered (β is the change in metabolite level expressed as number of standard deviations on the log scale): α-CEHC sulfate (, ), α-CEHC glucuronide (, ), α-tocopherol (, ), γ-tocopherol (, ), and β-tocopherol (, ). Glutarylcarnitine, beta-alanine, ornithine, and N6-acetyllysine were also decreased by ATA supplementation (β range 0.40 to −0.36), but not statistically significantly. Conclusions. Comparison of the observed metabolite alterations resulting from ATA supplementation to those in other vitamin E trials of different populations, dosages, or formulations may shed light on the apparently discordant vitamin E-prostate cancer risk findings. Alison M. Mondul, Steven C. Moore, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Anne M. Evans, Edward D. Karoly, Satu Männistö, Joshua N. Sampson, and Demetrius Albanes Copyright © 2016 Alison M. Mondul et al. All rights reserved.