Table of Contents
Journal of Nanoparticles
Volume 2014, Article ID 431787, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/431787
Review Article

Ecofriendly Application of Nanomaterials: Nanobioremediation

1Center for Nanosciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, India
2School of Chemical Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, India
3Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India
4Center for Comparative Literature and Translation Studies, School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, India

Received 4 January 2014; Revised 12 May 2014; Accepted 3 June 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Gunjan Agarwal

Copyright © 2014 Md. Rizwan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanomaterials exhibit unique physical and chemical properties and, hence, they have received much attention from scientists and researchers in different areas of environmental sciences, specifically in bioremediation. Bioremediation provides a good clean-up strategy for some types of waste, but as it is expected, it will not be useful for all. For example, bioremediation may not provide a feasible strategy at sites with high concentrations of chemicals that are toxic to most microorganisms. These include heavy metals and salt. Further, the advancement in science and technology has increased standard of living which directly or indirectly contributes to the increase in waste and toxic material. Therefore, the remediation of contaminants by use of existing technology is not effective and efficient in cleaning up the environment. Hence, nanomaterials may be applied for bioremediation, which will not only have less toxic effect on microorganisms, but will also improve the microbial activity of the specific waste and toxic material which will reduce the overall time consumption as well as reduce the overall cost. In this paper we have briefly summarized the major types of nanomaterials that have been used so far in bioremediation of waste and toxic materials.