Table of Contents
Journal of Nanoparticles
Volume 2014, Article ID 890751, 5 pages
Research Article

Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for Advanced Refrigerant Thermophysical Properties: Mathematical Modeling

1Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca, Malaysia
2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Selangor, Bestari Jaya Campus, Jalan Timur Tambahan, 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 16 January 2014; Accepted 13 April 2014; Published 30 April 2014

Academic Editor: Vijaya Rangari

Copyright © 2014 S. A. Fadhilah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In modern days, refrigeration systems are important for industrial and domestic applications. The systems consume more electricity as compared to other appliances. The refrigeration systems have been investigated thoroughly in many ways to reduce the energy consumption. Hence, nanorefrigerant which is one kind of nanofluids has been introduced as a superior properties refrigerant that increased the heat transfer rate in the refrigeration system. Many types of materials could be used as the nanoparticles to be suspended into the conventional refrigerants. In this study, the effect of the suspended copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles into the 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a is investigated by using mathematical modeling. The investigation includes the thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and heat transfer rate of the nanorefrigerant in a tube of evaporator. The results show enhanced thermophysical properties of nanorefrigerant compared to the conventional refrigerant. These advanced thermophysical properties increased the heat transfer rate in the tube. The nanorefrigerant could be a potential working fluid to be used in the refrigeration system to increase the heat transfer characteristics and save the energy usage.