Table of Contents
Journal of Nanoscience
Volume 2013, Article ID 641734, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/641734
Research Article

Formation of Germanium Nitride Nanowires on the Surface of Crystalline Germanium

Institute of Cybernetics, Georgian Technical University, 5 Euli Street, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia

Received 29 March 2013; Revised 30 May 2013; Accepted 1 June 2013

Academic Editor: Mingwang Shao

Copyright © 2013 David Jishiashvili et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S.-L. Zhang, W. Wang, E.-H. Zhang, and W. Xiao, “Half-metallic ferromagnetism in transition-metal doped germanium nitride: a first-principles study,” Physics Letters A, vol. 374, no. 31-32, pp. 3234–3237, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Yang, S. J. Wang, Y. P. Feng, G. W. Peng, and Y. Y. Sun, “Electronic structure of germanium nitride considered for gate dielectrics,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 102, no. 1, Article ID 013507, 6 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, and G. Borghs, United States patent no. 8017509, 2011.
  4. M. Yang, S. J. Wang, G. W. Peng, R. Q. Wu, and Y. P. Feng, “Ab initio study on intrinsic defect properties of germanium nitride considered for gate dielectric,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, Article ID 132906, 3 pages, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. R. Lieten, S. Degroote, M. Kuijk, and G. Borghs, “Crystalline Ge3N4 on Ge(111),” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 22, Article ID 222110, 3 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Okamoto, K. Kutsuki, T. Hosoi, T. Shimura, and H. Watanabe, “Electrical characteristics of Ge-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices with Ge3N4 dielectrics formed by plasma nitridation,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 2856–2860, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Fukuda, Y. Otani, H. Toyota, and T. Ono, “Trap density of GeNx/Ge interface fabricated by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 2, Article ID 022902, 3 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Fukuda, H. Okamoto, T. Iwasaki et al., “Thermal improvement and stability of Si3N4/GeNx/p- and n-Ge structures prepared by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering at room temperature,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 51, Article ID 090204, 3 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Kumar, M. K. Rajpalke, B. Roul, T. N. Bhat, A. T. Kalghatgi, and S. B. Krupanidhi, “Determination of MBE grown wurtzite GaN/Ge3N4/Ge heterojunctions band offset by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Physica Status Solidi (B), vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Maeda, N. Saito, D. Lu, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalytic properties of RuO2-loaded β-Ge3N4 for overall water splitting,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 4749–4755, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Amatucci and N. Pereira, U.S. patent 429/218.1, 2001.
  12. M. S. Somayazulu, K. Leinenweber, H. Hubert, P. F. McMillan, and G. H. Wolf, Proceedings of 17th AIRAPT Conference: Science and Technology of High Pressure, Universities Press, Hyderabad, India, 2000.
  13. Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, and T. Sato, “Nanobelts of the dielectric material Ge3N4,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, no. 27, pp. 4565–4567, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Xie, Z. Jiang, G. Wu, X. Fang, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Characterization and growth mechanism of germanium nitride nanowires prepared by an oxide-assisted method,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 283, no. 3-4, pp. 286–290, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Jishiashvili1, V. Kapaklis, X. Devaux et al., “Germanium nitride nanowires produced by thermal annealing in hydrazine vapor,” Advanced Science Letters, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D. Dirtu, L. Odochian, A. Pui, and I. Humelnicu, “Thermal decomposition of ammonia. N2H4—an intermediate reaction product,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 666–673, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. R. Patzke, R. Kontic, Z. Shiolashvili, N. Makhatadze, and D. Jishiashvili, “Hydrazine-assisted formation of indium phosphide (InP)-based nanowires and core-shell composites,” Materials, vol. 6, pp. 85–100, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Schmeisser, R. D. Schnell, A. Bogen et al., “Surface oxidation states of germanium,” Surface Science, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 455–465, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. J. Wang, J. W. Chai, J. S. Pan, and A. C. H. Huan, “Thermal stability and band alignments for Ge3N4 dielectrics on Ge,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 2, Article ID 022105, 3 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Kutsuki, G. Okamoto, T. Hosoi, T. Shimura, and H. Watanabe, “Characteristics of pure Ge3N4 dielectric layers formed by high-density plasma nitridation,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 2415–2419, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Jishiashvili, Z. Shiolashvili, V. Gobronidze, and I. Nakhutsrishvili, “A study of solid phase reactions at the Ge–GeO2 interface,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium and Exhibition on Advanced Packaging Materials, pp. 112–115, Stone Mountain Park, Ga, USA, 2002.
  22. G. Xu, Z. Li, J. Baca, and J. Wu, “Probing nucleation mechanism of self-catalyzed inn nanostructures,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. N. Mohammad, “Analysis of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for nanowire growth and a model for this mechanism,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1532–1538, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. C. Jaeger, Thermal Oxidation of Silicon. Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
  25. N. Tabet, J. Al-Sadah, and M. Salim, “Growth of oxide layer on germanium (011) substrate under dry and wet atmospheres,” Surface Review and Letters, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1053–1060, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. O. J. Gregory, L. A. Pruitt, E. E. Crisman, C. Roberts, and P. J. Stiles, “Native oxides formed on single-crystal germanium by wet chemical reactions,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 923–929, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Mura, I. Hideshima, Z. Liu, T. Hosoi, H. Watanabe, and K. Arima, “Water growth on GeO2/Ge(100) stack and its effect on the electronic properties of GeO2,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 165–171, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. T.-F. Teng, W.-L. Lee, Y.-F. Chang, J.-C. Jiang, J.-H. Wang, and W.-H. Hung, “Adsorption and thermal reactions of H2O and H2S on Ge(100),” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 1019–1027, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. F. Lever and F. Jona, “Epitaxial growth of germanium using water vapor,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 3139–3140, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. S. Palatnik and I. I. Papirov, Epitaxial Films, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 1971.
  31. S. M. Cohen, Y. L. Yang, E. Rouchouze, T. Jin, and M. P. D'Evelyn, “Adsorption and decomposition of hydrides on Ge(100),” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2166–2166, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. T. J. Hsu, Ch. Y. Ko, and W. T. Lin, “Water-vapor-enhanced growth of Ge–GeOx core-shell nanowires and Si1−xGexOy nanowires,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, Article ID 385601, 4 pages, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. W.-L. Lo, H.-C. Chang, T.-J. Hsu, and W.-T. Lin, “Effects of cu catalyst and water vapor on the growth of Ge–GeOx core-shell nanowires via the carbothermal reduction of GeO2 powders,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 3299–3302, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Sutter, B. Ozturk, and P. Sutter, “Selective growth of Ge nanowires by low-temperature thermal evaporation,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 43, Article ID 435607, 5 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. J. Sahle, M. Zschintzsch, C. Sternemann et al., “Influence of hydrogen on thermally induced phase separation in GeO/SiO2 multilayers,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 12, Article ID 125709, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. N. Ruddlesden and P. Popper, “On the crystal structure of the nitrides of silicon and germanium,” Acta Crystallographica, vol. 11, pp. 465–468, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. W. Mullin, Crystallization, Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd, Woburn, Mass, USA, 4th edition, 2001.
  38. B. Molina and L. E. Sansores, “Electronic structures of Ge3N4—possible structures,” The International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 249–257, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  39. Y. Ming, Surface passivation and high-k dielectrics integration of Ge-based FETs: first-principles calculations and in situ characterizations [Ph.D. thesis], National University of Singapore, 2009.
  40. W. Yang, Z. Xie, H. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Ji, and L. An, “Synthesis of single-crystalline silicon nitride nanobelts via catalyst-assisted pyrolysis of a polysilazane,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 466–469, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus