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Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 937819, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/937819
Research Article

Manufacturing Strategy for Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as a Biocompatible and Innovative Material

1Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
2Department of Applied Physical Therapy, Shinshu University School of Health Sciences, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
3Clinical Pharmacology Educational Center, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama 362-0806, Japan
4Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
6Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano 390-8621, Japan

Received 29 June 2011; Accepted 26 August 2011

Academic Editor: Lifeng Dong

Copyright © 2012 Hisao Haniu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the relationship between differences in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the biological responses they elicit in order to develop biocompatible MWCNTs. We exposed human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells to two sizes and six grades of MWCNTs and measured the resulting cell viability, total reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (tROS/RNS) production, and cytokine secretion. Although differences in cellular tROS production were associated with differences in grades of MWCNTs, the graphitization temperature of MWCNTs apparently did not influence tROS production. However, cell viability was affected by MWCNT graphitization temperature and diameter. Moreover, cytokine secretion was apparently affected by treatment temperature, but not MWCNT diameter. We concluded that the highest temperature resulted in the most biocompatibility because impurities and carbon defects were removed from the MWCNTs. However, other mechanisms are possible. Therefore, it is important to optimize each type of MWCNT by monitoring biological responses that type elicits during the manufacturing stage for applications involving biology and medicine.