Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2015, Article ID 642014, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/642014
Research Article

Growth Mechanisms of Nanostructured Titania in Turbulent Reacting Flows

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0111, USA

Received 5 June 2015; Accepted 22 July 2015

Academic Editor: Lin-Hua Xu

Copyright © 2015 Sean C. Garrick. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Pratsinis and S. Vemury, “Particle formation in gases: a review,” Powder Technology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Beaucage, H. Kammler, P. Mueller et al., “Probing the dynamics of nanoparticle growth in a flame using synchrotron radiation,” Nature Materials, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 370–373, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. S. Panda and S. E. Pratsinis, “Modeling the synthesis of aluminum particles by evaporation-condensation in an aerosol flow reactor,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 5, no. 7-8, pp. 755–767, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Yuu, K. Ikeda, and T. Umekage, “Flow-field prediction and experimental verification of low Reynolds number gas-particle turbulent jets,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 109, pp. 13–27, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Tsantilis, H. K. Kammler, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Population balance modeling of flame synthesis of titania nanoparticles,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 2139–2156, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Settumba and S. C. Garrick, “Direct numerical simulation of nanoparticle coagulation in a temporal mixing layer via a moment method,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 149–167, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. L. Marchisio and R. O. Fox, “Solution of population balance equations using the direct quadrature mehtod of moments,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 36, pp. 43–73, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  8. F. Aristizabal, R. J. Munz, and D. Berk, “Modeling of the production of ultra fine Aluminium particles in rapid quenching turbulent flow,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 162–186, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Rigopoulos, “PDF method for population balance in turbulent reactive flow,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 62, no. 23, pp. 6865–6878, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Zhou, A. Attili, A. Alshaarawi, and F. Bisetti, “Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 26, no. 6, Article ID 065106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Orszag and I. Staroselsky, “CFD: progress and problems,” Computer Physics Communications, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 165–171, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  12. K. Nakaso, T. Fujimoto, T. Seto, M. Shimada, K. Okuyama, and M. M. Lunden, “Size distribution change of titania nano-particle agglomerates generated by gas phase reaction, agglomeration, and sintering,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 929–947, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Johannessen, S. E. Pratsinis, and H. Livbjerg, “Computational analysis of coagulation and coalescence in the flame synthesis of titania particles,” Powder Technology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 242–250, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. G. Moody and L. R. Collins, “Effect of mixing on the nucleation and growth of titania particles,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 403–424, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Wang and S. C. Garrick, “Modeling and simulation of titania formation and growth in temporal mixing layers,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 431–451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Das and S. C. Garrick, “The effects of turbulence on nanoparticle growth in turbulent reacting jets,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 22, no. 10, Article ID 103303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. C. Garrick, “Effects of turbulent fluctuations on nanoparticle coagulation in shear flows,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1272–1285, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. J. Fager, J. Liu, and S. C. Garrick, “Hybrid simulations of metal particle nucleation: a priori and a posteriori analyses of the effects of unresolved scalar interactions on nanoparticle nucleation,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 24, no. 7, Article ID 075110, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. J. Murfield and S. C. Garrick, “Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of homogeneous nucleation in turbulent wakes,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 60, pp. 21–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. J. Murfield and S. C. Garrick, “The effects of unresolved scalar fluctuations during homogeneous nucleation,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 806–817, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Givi, “Model free simulations of turbulent reactive flows,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–107, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. E. J. Lehtinen and M. R. Zachariah, “Self-preserving theory for the volume distribution of particles undergoing brownian coagulation,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 242, no. 2, pp. 314–318, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. C. Garrick, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and M. R. Zachariah, “Nanoparticle coagulation via a Navier-Stokes/nodal methodology: evolution of the particle field,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 555–576, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Gelbard and J. H. Seinfeld, “Simulation of multicomponent aerosol dynamics,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 485–501, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Biswas, C. Y. Wu, M. R. Zachariah, and B. McMillin, “Characterization of iron oxide-silica nanocomposites in flames: part II: comparison of discrete-sectional model predictions to experimental data,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 714–723, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. E. J. Lehtinen and M. R. Zachariah, “Energy accumulation in nanoparticle collision and coalescence processes,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 357–368, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Wang and S. C. Garrick, “Modeling and simulation of titania formation and growth in temporal mixing layers,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 431–451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Loeffler, S. Das, and S. C. Garrick, “Large eddy simulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle formation and growth in turbulent jets,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 616–628, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. S. Friedlander, Smoke, Dust and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  30. M. Frenklach and S. J. Harris, “Aerosol dynamics modeling using the method of moments,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 252–261, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. E. Pratsinis, “Particle production by gas-to-particle conversion in turbulent flows,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1461–1464, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. D. Landgrebe and S. E. Pratsinis, “A discrete-sectional model for particulate production by gas-phase chemical reaction and aerosol coagulation in the free-molecular regime,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 63–86, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Wang and S. C. Garrick, “Modeling and simulation of titania synthesis in two-dimensional methane-air flames,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 621–632, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. W. Mulholland, R. J. Samson, R. D. Mountain, and M. H. Ernst, “Cluster size distribution for free molecular agglomeration,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 481–486, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Cai, N. Lu, and C. M. Sorensen, “Analysis of fractal cluster morphology parameters: structural coefficient and density autocorrelation function cutoff,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 470–473, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Jullien and P. Meakin, “Simple models for the restructuring of three-dimensional ballistic aggregates,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 265–272, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. N. Rogak and R. C. Flagan, “Coagulation of aerosol agglomerates in the transition regime,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 203–224, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Modem, S. C. Garrick, M. R. Zachariah, and K. E. J. Lehtinen, “Direct numerical simulation of nanoparticle coagulation in a temporal mixing layer,” in Proceedings of the 29th Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1071–1077, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, 2002.
  39. S. C. Garrick and G. Wang, “Modeling and simulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis with finite-rate sintering in planar jets,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 973–984, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. C. Heine and S. E. Pratsinis, “Polydispersity of primary particles in agglomerates made by coagulation and sintering,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 17–38, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. W. MacCormack, “The effect of viscosity in hypervelocity impact catering,” AIAA Paper 69-354, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. H. Carpenter, “A high-order compact numerical algorithm for supersonic flows,” in Twelfth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics, K. W. Morton, Ed., vol. 371 of Lecture Notes in Physics, pp. 254–258, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. D. H. Rudy and J. C. Strikwerda, “Boundary conditions for subsonic compressible navier-stokes calculations,” Computers and Fluids, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 327–338, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Givi, “Filtered density function for subgrid scale modeling of turbulent combustion,” AIAA Journal, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Modem and S. C. Garrick, “Nanoparticle coagulation in a temporal mixing layer mean and size-selected images,” Journal of Visualization, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 293–302, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. L. Wright, S. Yu, P. S. Kasibhatla et al., “Retrieval of aerosol properties from moments of the particle size distribution for kernels involving the step function: cloud droplet activation,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 319–337, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. K. Kammler, R. Jossen, P. W. Morrison Jr., S. E. Pratsinis, and G. Beaucage, “The effect of external electric fields during flame synthesis of titania,” Powder Technology, vol. 135-136, pp. 310–320, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W. C. Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior and Measurement of Air-Borne Particles, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1999.
  49. N. Settumba and S. C. Garrick, “A comparison of diffusive transport in a moment method for nanoparticle coagulation,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 93–101, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. E. Pratsinis, “Simultaneous nucleation, condensation, and coagulation in aerosol reactors,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 416–427, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. McGraw, “Description of aerosol dynamics by the quadrature method of moments,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 255–265, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Bai, Y.-H. Xu, and J.-P. Wang, “Cubic and spherical high-moment FeCo nanoparticles with narrow size distribution,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 3340–3342, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Khorsand Zak, R. Razali, W. H. Abd Majid, and M. Darroudi, “Synthesis and characterization of a narrow size distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1399–1403, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Asemi and M. Ghanaatshoar, “Preparation of CuCrO2 nanoparticles with narrow size distribution by sol-gel method,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 416–421, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. M. Ahadi, O. Polonskyi, U. Schürmann, T. Strunskus, and F. Faupel, “Stable production of TiOx nanoparticles with narrow size distribution by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, Article ID 035501, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. W. W. So, S. B. Park, K. J. Kim, C. J. Shin, and S. J. Moon, “The crystalline phase stability of titania particles prepared at room temperature by the sol-gel method,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 4299–4305, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Teleki, R. Wengeler, L. Wengeler, H. Nirschl, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Distinguishing between aggregates and agglomerates of flame-made TiO2 by high-pressure dispersion,” Powder Technology, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 292–300, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus