Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2017, Article ID 4862087, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4862087
Research Article

Deposition and Characterization of Molybdenum Thin Film Using Direct Current Magnetron and Atomic Force Microscopy

1Faculty of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Advanced Manufacturing Centre, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
3Institutes of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohd Asyadi Azam; ym.ude.metu@idaysa

Received 9 June 2016; Accepted 29 December 2016; Published 31 January 2017

Academic Editor: María J. Lázaro

Copyright © 2017 Muhtade Mustafa Aqil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Ghodssi and P. Lin, Eds., MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1st edition, 2011.
  2. S. Beeby, G. Ensell, M. Kraft, and N. White, MEMS Mechanical Sensors, Artech House, Boston, Mass, USA, 2004.
  3. B. Bhushan, Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS: Proceedings of the NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop on Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS held in Columbus, Ohio, USA, 9–11 November 1997, Springer, 2012.
  4. “Sandia National laboratories,” 2015, http://www.sandia.gov/mstc/mems/.
  5. B. Bhushan, Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
  6. B. Bhushan, Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology, CRC Press, 2nd edition, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. S. M. Jaya, N. A. Abdul Kadir, and M. I. Jarrah, “Modeling of TiN coating roughness using fuzzy logic approach,” Science International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1563–1567, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. S. Mohamad Jaya, M. I. Mohammad Jarrah, and M. R. Muhamad, “Modeling of TiN coating grain size using RSM approach,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 754-755, pp. 738–742, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. M. I. Jarrah, A. S. M. Jaya, M. R. Muhamad, M. N. Abd Rahman, and A. S. H. Basari, “Modeling and optimization of physical vapour deposition coating process parameters for TiN grain size using combined genetic algorithms with response surface methodology,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 235–253, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. A. H. Hanaor, G. Triani, and C. C. Sorrell, “Morphology and photocatalytic activity of highly oriented mixed phase titanium dioxide thin films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 12, pp. 3658–3664, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Mehmood, A. Kaynak, X. J. Dai et al., “Study of oxygen plasma pre-treatment of polyester fabric for improved polypyrrole adhesion,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 668–675, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Duk, M. Schmidbauer, and J. Schwarzkopf, “Anisotropic one-dimensional domain pattern in NaNbO3 epitaxial thin films grown on (110) TbScO3,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 9, Article ID 091903, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Khojier, M. R. Mehr, and H. Savaloni, “Annealing temperature effect on the mechanical and tribological properties of molybdenum nitride thin films,” Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 1, article no. 5, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. F. Kwasnick, G. E. Possin, D. E. T. L. Holden, and R. J. Saia, “Thin film transistor stucture with improved source/drain contacts,” 1996.
  15. M. A. Mohamed, M. A. Azam, E. Shikoh, and A. Fujiwara, “Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors using ferromagnetic electrodes with different coercivities,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 49, no. 2, Article ID 02BD08, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Latif, E. Mastropaolo, A. Bunting et al., “Microelectromechanical systems for biomimetical applications,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, vol. 28, no. 6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, T.-W. Lee et al., “Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering,” Scientific Reports, vol. 4, article 6230, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. H. Scofield, A. Duda, D. Albin, B. L. Ballard, and P. K. Predecki, “Sputtered molybdenum bilayer back contact for copper indium diselenide-based polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 260, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Gordillo, M. Grizález, and L. C. Hernandez, “Structural and electrical properties of DC sputtered molybdenum films,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 51, no. 3-4, pp. 327–337, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Martin, P. Muralt, and M.-A. Dubois, “Process optimization for the sputter deposition of molybdenum thin films as electrode for AlN thin films,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 946–952, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z.-H. Li, E.-S. Cho, and S. J. Kwon, “Molybdenum thin film deposited by in-line DC magnetron sputtering as a back contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 22, pp. 9682–9688, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Lyubenova, D. Fraga, A. Rey, R. Marti, S. Kozhukarov, and J. Carda, “Electrical and Morphological study of Mo thin films for solar cell applications,” Rousse University “Angel Kanchev”, vol. 52, pp. 11–15, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. N. Kumari, A. K. Singh, and P. K. Barhai, “Study of properties of AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering,” International Journal of Thin Films Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 43–49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. K. R. Nagabhushana, B. N. Lakshminarasappa, K. Narasimha Rao, F. Singh, and I. Sulania, “AFM and photoluminescence studies of swift heavy ion induced nanostructured aluminum oxide thin films,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 266, no. 7, pp. 1049–1054, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Nesheva, A. Petrova, S. Stavrev, Z. Levi, and Z. Aneva, “Thin film semiconductor nanomaterials and nanostructures prepared by physical vapour deposition: an atomic force microscopy study,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 68, no. 5-6, pp. 675–680, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Heredia, C. C. Bui, U. Suter, P. Young, and T. E. Schäffer, “AFM combines functional and morphological analysis of peripheral myelinated and demyelinated nerve fibers,” NeuroImage, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1218–1226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Marchetto, A. Rota, L. Calabri, G. C. Gazzadi, C. Menozzi, and S. Valeri, “AFM investigation of tribological properties of nano-patterned silicon surface,” Wear, vol. 265, no. 5-6, pp. 577–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Jalili and K. Laxminarayana, “A review of atomic force microscopy imaging systems: application to molecular metrology and biological sciences,” Mechatronics, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 907–945, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Kwoka, L. Ottaviano, and J. Szuber, “AFM study of the surface morphology of L-CVD SnO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 23, pp. 8328–8331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Strausser, Characterization in Silicon Processing, Elsevier, 2013.
  31. B. Bhushan, “Surface Roughness Analysis and Measurement Techniques,” in Modern Tribology Handbook, CRC Press, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  32. B. Rajesh Kumar and T. Subba Rao, “AFM studies on surface morphology, topography and texture of nanostructured zinc aluminum oxide thin films,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1881–1889, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 23, pp. 9085–9090, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Ward, Profile Characterization. Rough Surfaces, Edited by T. R. Thomas, Longman, London, UK, 1982.