Journal of Nanotechnology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in size with an average of 2.7 nm and shape which was spherical-like. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) in water showed efficiencies of 31% and 48% when using uncapped and 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles as photocatalysts, respectively. The efficiency of PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles indicated that a complete green process can be utilized for photocatalytic treatment of water and waste water. Kgobudi Frans Chepape, Thapelo Prince Mofokeng, Pardon Nyamukamba, Kalenga Pierre Mubiayi, and Makwena Justice Moloto Copyright © 2017 Kgobudi Frans Chepape et al. All rights reserved. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Novel Threshold Voltage Definition for Nano-MOSFET Sun, 26 Nov 2017 07:17:14 +0000 Threshold voltage (VTH) is the indispensable vital parameter in MOSFET designing, modeling, and operation. Diverse expounds and extraction methods exist to model the on-off transition characteristics of the device. The governing gauge for efficient threshold voltage definition and extraction method can be itemized as clarity, simplicity, precision, and stability throughout the operating conditions and technology node. The outcomes of extraction methods diverge from the exact values due to various short-channel effects (SCEs) and nonidealities present in the device. A new approach to define and extract the real value of VTH of MOSFET is proposed in the manuscript. The subsequent novel enhanced SCE-independent VTH extraction method named “hybrid extrapolation VTH extraction method” (HEEM) is elaborated, modeled, and compared with few prevalent MOSFET threshold voltage extraction methods for validation of the results. All the results are verified by extensive 2D TCAD simulation and confirmed analytically at various technology nodes. Yashu Swami and Sanjeev Rai Copyright © 2017 Yashu Swami and Sanjeev Rai. All rights reserved. Novel Nanomaterials Enable Biomimetic Models of the Tumor Microenvironment Thu, 12 Oct 2017 08:34:41 +0000 In the complex tumor microenvironment, chemical and mechanical signals from tumor cells, stromal cells, and the surrounding extracellular matrix influence all aspects of disease progression and response to treatment. Modeling the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment has been a significant effort in the biomaterials field. One challenge has been the difficulty in altering the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix without simultaneously impacting other factors that influence cell behavior. The development of novel materials based on nanotechnology has enabled recent innovations in tumor cell culture models. Here, we review the various approaches by which the tumor cell microenvironment has been engineered using natural and synthetic gels. We describe new studies that rely on the unique temporal and spatial control afforded by nanomaterials to produce culture platforms that mimic dynamic changes in tumor matrix mechanics. In addition, we look at the frontier of nanomaterial-hydrogel composites to review new approaches for perturbation of mechanochemical control in the tumor microenvironment. Marshall Hunter Joyce, Shane Allen, Laura Suggs, and Amy Brock Copyright © 2017 Marshall Hunter Joyce et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Cobalt and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles in Hyperbranched Polyester Polyol Matrix Sun, 20 Aug 2017 10:07:45 +0000 A series of cobalt (Co) and its oxides based nanoparticles were synthesized by using hyperbranched polyester polyol Boltorn H20 as a platform and sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. UV, FT-IR, XRD, NTA, and TEM methods were employed to obtain physicochemical characteristics of the products. The average diameter of Co nanoparticles was approximately  nm. Their magnetic properties, including hysteresis loop, field-cooled, and zero field-cooled curves were investigated. The nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature, accompanied by magnetic hysteresis below the blocking temperature. O. I. Medvedeva, S. S. Kambulova, O. V. Bondar, A. R. Gataulina, N. A. Ulakhovich, A. V. Gerasimov, V. G. Evtugyn, I. F. Gilmutdinov, and M. P. Kutyreva Copyright © 2017 O. I. Medvedeva et al. All rights reserved. Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Optical Sensor and Energy Storage and Transfer Thu, 22 Jun 2017 10:59:47 +0000 Xuanhua Li, Baofu Ding, Xingang Ren, and Yongxing Zhang Copyright © 2017 Xuanhua Li et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane for Fuel Cells Application Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:05:02 +0000 Alkaline anion exchange membrane (AAEM) plays an important role in the development of fuel cell. In this research, the electrostatic spinning technology was used to prepare AAEM. We use BC/TiO2 membrane as substrate by introduced quaternary ammonium groups to prepare BC/TiO2/CHPTAC (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) composite membranes. The as-prepared composite membrane was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, and TG methods. It was found that BC/TiO2/CHPTAC (0.05 g) membrane exhibited high thermal stability and better comprehensive performance. The degree of substitution (DS), water uptake, and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of BC/TiO2/CHPTAC membranes were investigated. The results showed that the DS, water uptake, and IEC of BC/TiO2/CHPTAC membrane were 1.16, 140%, and 1 mmolg−1, respectively. We believe this composite membrane with excellent performances can promise many applications in fuel cells. Ganmin Zeng, Jing Han, Beibei Dai, Xiaohui Liu, Jinkun Li, Chuntao Chen, Jiazhi Yang, and Dongping Sun Copyright © 2017 Ganmin Zeng et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Injectable and Implantable Biomaterials for Treatment and Repair of Soft Tissues in Wound Healing Mon, 05 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The two major topics concerning the development of nanomedicine are drug delivery and tissue engineering. With the advance in nanotechnology, scientists and engineers now have the ability to fabricate functional drug carriers and/or biomaterials that deliver and release drugs locally as well as promote tissue regeneration. In this short review, we address the use of nanotechnology in the fabrication of biomaterials (i.e., nanoparticles and nanofibers) and their therapeutic function in wound healing as dressing materials. Furthermore, we discuss the use of surface nanofeatures to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation, which is a crucial step in wound healing associated with tissue regeneration. Given that nanotechnology-based biomaterials exhibit superior pharmaceutical performance as compared to the traditional medicine, this short review provides current status and future directions of how nanotechnology is and will be used in biomedical field, especially in wound healing. Shih-Feng Chou, Simi Gunaseelan, Mhd Hussam Hijazi Kiellani, Venkata Vamsi Krishna Thottempudi, Pierre Neuenschwander, and Huarong Nie Copyright © 2017 Shih-Feng Chou et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Biologically Specific Contrast Agent for Prostate Cancer: A Nude Mouse Model Wed, 31 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 We characterized in vivo a functional superparamagnetic iron-oxide magnetic resonance contrast agent that shortens the relaxation time in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prostate cancer xenografts. The agent was developed by conjugating Molday ION™ carboxyl-6 (MIC6), with a deimmunized mouse monoclonal antibody (muJ591) targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). This functional contrast agent could be used as a noninvasive method to detect prostate cancer cells that are PSMA positive and more readily differentiate them from surrounding tissues for treatment. The functional contrast agent was injected intravenously into mice and its effect was compared to both MIC6 (without conjugated antibody) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injection controls. MR imaging was performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner using a multiecho spin echo (MESE) sequence to obtain relaxation time values. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to confirm an increase in elemental iron in injected mice tumours relative to controls. Histological examination of H&E stained tissues showed normal morphology of the tissues collected. Christopher Brian Abraham, Prashant Jani, Roxanne Turuba, Michael Campbell, Ingeborg Zehbe, and Laura Curiel Copyright © 2017 Christopher Brian Abraham et al. All rights reserved. Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles as Targeted Therapy: Theranostic Approach to Treat and Diagnose Cancer Tue, 30 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The metastasis of cancer epitomizes the diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as a result of cancer heterogeneity. To overcome the uncontrolled growth of the proliferating cells, nanosystems have been developed and have undergone many preclinical trials both in vitro and in vivo and many practices have been further applied clinically on human beings. In practice, magnetic nanoparticles- (MNPs-) based systems following the application of Fe3O4 bound antitumor drug have shown an enhanced therapeutic index in comparison with conventional chemotherapy ensuring the significant decline in nanosystems’ toxicity. A number of improved strategies employing nanoparticle engineering have been in practice for upgrading selectivity of metastatic cells and to have direct access to poorly manageable tumor regions. Targeted nanoparticle therapy paving the way towards tumor biomarkers and tissue specific cancer stages provides effective strategies for nonaccessible tumor regions, thus leading to the tangible modification in the history of cancer world. An infinite number of targets have been exploited for surface receptor specificity to distinct types of nanoparticles and are presently enduring clinical practices both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review is to take into view current nanotechnology-based research in cancer imaging for diagnosis and treatment. Several commercially available magnetic nanoparticles-based systems applied as contrast agents for metastatic cancer imaging and treatment via hyperthermia have also been focused on. Arif Malik, Tariq Tahir Butt, Sara Zahid, Fatima Zahid, Sulayman Waquar, Mahmood Rasool, Mahmood Husain Qazi, and Aamer Mahmood Qazi Copyright © 2017 Arif Malik et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Temperature on the Formation of Cubic Structured CdO Nanoparticles and Their Thin Films from Bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydato)cadmium(II) Complex via Thermal Decomposition Technique Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Recently, researchers have developed a great interest in the synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles due to their potential applications in various fields of science and industry, especially in catalysis, due to their high activity. Bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydato)cadmium(II) complexes were prepared and used as precursors for the synthesis of cadmium oxide nanoparticles via thermal decomposition method using HDA as a stabilizing agent. The prepared complexes were also used as single source precursors to prepare CdO thin films onto the glass substrates by spin coating and were annealed at 250, 300, and 350°C, respectively. The precursors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The synthesized CdO nanoparticles and CdO thin films were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thokozani Xaba, Makwena J. Moloto, Mohammad A. Malik, and Nosipho Moloto Copyright © 2017 Thokozani Xaba et al. All rights reserved. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application. T. Jiříček, M. Komárek, and T. Lederer Copyright © 2017 T. Jiříček et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Nanopowders and Coatings of Carbon-Doped Zinc Oxide Prepared by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation Sun, 23 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 With the help of electron beam evaporation of mechanical mixtures of nonmagnetic micron powders ZnO and carbon in vacuum with the subsequent annealing of evaporation products in air at the temperature of 773 K, single-phase crystal nanopowders ZnO-C were produced with the hexagonal wurtzite structure and low content of the carbon dopant not exceeding 0.25 wt%. It was established that doping ZnO with carbon stimulates primary growth of nanoparticles along the direction in the coatings. Nanocrystal growth in coatings occurs in the same way as crystal growth in thin films, with growth anisotropy in the -axis direction in wurtzite ZnO. Element mapping has confirmed homogeneous distribution of carbon in ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetism of single-phase crystal nanopowders ZnO-C with the hexagonal wurtzite structure and low content of the carbon dopant not exceeding 0.25 wt% was produced at room temperature. Ferromagnetic response of the doped NP ZnO-C has exceeded the ferromagnetic response of pure NP ZnO 5 times. The anhysteretic form of magnetization curves NP ZnO-C indicates aspiration of samples to superparamagnetism manifestation. V. G. Il’ves and S. Yu. Sokovnin Copyright © 2017 V. G. Il’ves and S. Yu. Sokovnin. All rights reserved. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:02:32 +0000 Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te) and bismuth (Bi) were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to show granular growth. Swati Arora, Vivek Jaimini, Subodh Srivastava, and Y. K. Vijay Copyright © 2017 Swati Arora et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Mode Structures of Multiphoton Induced Ultraviolet Laser in a ZnO Microrod Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Hexagonal wurtzite structural ZnO microrods were fabricated by vapor-phase transport method. Under the excitation of a pulse laser with 1200 nm wavelength, the multiphoton induced ultraviolet (UV) laser was observed in a microrod. The dependence of the laser mode structures on pump intensity was investigated. The result indicates that the laser belongs to whispering gallery mode (WGM) at low pump intensity and Fabry-Perot (FP) mode at high pump intensity. The corresponding positive feedback mechanisms were discussed. Guangping Zhu Copyright © 2017 Guangping Zhu. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO) is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline. Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan, Rong Zhang Chen, Sheng Huang, Khalil I. Hajim, and Kevin P. Chen Copyright © 2017 Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of 6T, 7T, 8T, 9T, and 10T Realistic CNTFET Based SRAM Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 CMOS technology below 10 nm faces fundamental limits which restricts its applicability for future electronic application mainly in terms of size, power consumption, and speed. In digital electronics, memory components play a very significant role. SRAM, due to its unique ability to retain data, is one of the most popular memory elements used in most of the digital devices. With aggressive technology scaling, the design of SRAM is seriously challenged in terms of delay, noise margin, and stability. This paper compares the performance of various CNTFET based SRAM cell topologies like 6T, 7T, 8T, 9T, and 10T cell with respect to static noise margin (SNM), write margin (WM), read delay, and power consumption. To consider the nonidealities of CNTFET, variations in tube diameter and effect of metallic tubes are considered for various structures with respect to various performance metrics like SNM, WM, read delay, and power consumption. Shital Joshi and Umar Alabawi Copyright © 2017 Shital Joshi and Umar Alabawi. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Ecofriendly Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Garden Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum)” Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:15:40 +0000 P. R. Reddy, S. D. Ganesh, N. Saha, O. Zandraa, and P. Sáha Copyright © 2017 P. R. Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a Mechanochemically Processed Silicon and Oxide-Based Nanoscale Composite as an Active Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries Thu, 09 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Si is essential as an active material in Li-ion batteries because it provides both high charge and optimal cycling characteristics. A composite of Si particles, Cu particles, and pure H2O was realized to serve as an anode active material and optimize the charge–discharge characteristics of Li-ion batteries. The composite was produced by grinding using a planetary ball mill machine, which allowed for homogenous dispersion of nanoscale Cu3Si as Si–Cu alloy grains and nanoscale Si grains in each poly-Si particle produced. Furthermore, some Si particles were oxidized by H2O, and oxidized Si was distributed throughout the composite, mainly as silicon monoxide. As a result, each Si particle included silicon monoxide and conductive Cu3Si materials, allowing for effective optimization of the recharging and charge-discharge characteristics. Thus, a new and simple process was realized for synthesizing a Si active material composited with silicon oxides, including silicon monoxide. This Si-rich conductive material is suitable as an anode for Li-ion batteries with high charge and optimized cycling properties. Norihiro Shimoi and Kazuyuki Tohji Copyright © 2017 Norihiro Shimoi and Kazuyuki Tohji. All rights reserved. Controllable Growth of the ZnO Nanorod Arrays on the Al Substrate and Their Reversible Wettability Transition Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:10:02 +0000 High-quality ZnO nanorod arrays are formed using the ZnO nanoflakes on the Al substrate as seed layer. A reversible wettability transition can be easily achieved via alternation of UV irradiation and dark storage. The physical adsorption of the water molecules on the surface of ZnO nanorod arrays is considered to be responsible for this transition, which is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hong Li, Hongyan Liu, Yushan Li, and Qinzhuang Liu Copyright © 2017 Hong Li et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of PCL and Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carriers of Enoxaparin and Its Antithrombotic Effect in Animal Models of Venous Thrombosis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This study was based on the preparation, characterization, and animal in vivo experiments performed to evaluate nanoparticles of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan as carriers of enoxaparin. The nanoparticles were characterized and presented satisfactory results in terms of size, polydispersity, and encapsulation efficiency. Anticoagulant activity of the nanoparticles was maintained for 14 hours when the administration was subcutaneous; however no activity was observed after oral administration. There was a significant reduction in thrombus size, in vivo, for both free and encapsulated enoxaparin in comparison with the control group after subcutaneous administration. Oral administration results however were indifferent. In conclusion, the double emulsion method w/o/w was efficient for enoxaparin encapsulation, producing spherical nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. For in vivo studies, the encapsulated enoxaparin showed a sustained anticoagulant activity for a higher period of time compared to free enoxaparin, with an antithrombotic effect when administered subcutaneously. Lucas Bessa Prado, Stephany Cares Huber, Aline Barnabé, Fernanda Dutra Santiago Bassora, Devanira Souza Paixão, Nelson Duran, and Joyce Maria Annichino-Bizzacchi Copyright © 2017 Lucas Bessa Prado et al. All rights reserved. Aqueous Extract of Saraca indica Leaves in the Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles: Finding a Way towards Going Green Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The present study is mainly aimed at the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles of varied size by green synthetic approach. The structural and morphological behavior of as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles were investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectral studies (UV-Vis), Fourier transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The reduction of copper ions using aqueous extract of S. indica leaves produces nanoparticles of varied size and morphology. The images from SEM investigation revealed that the particles are spherical in shape with average diameter of 40–70 nm. TEM and HRTEM images clearly indicate the crystallinity and spherical nature of as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles with interplanar distance between two neighboring lattice fringes of 0.315 nm. Kollur Shiva Prasad, Alakananda Patra, Govindaraju Shruthi, and Shivamallu Chandan Copyright © 2017 Kollur Shiva Prasad et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Parameters of Screen Printing on Photoluminescence Properties of Nanophotonic Labels for Smart Packaging Tue, 14 Feb 2017 10:13:53 +0000 Smart packaging is becoming more popular on world market as a new type of packaging able to react to changes in a packaged product during storage and informs a customer about the safety of consumption of packaged food. This article investigates the main technological issues of the use of nanophotonic printing inks based on ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for printing active elements of smart packaging on paper substrates, concerning material properties and parameters of screen printing. It is determined that the use of ink compositions with medium content of ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles allows obtaining blue-green and blue shades of luminescence color of screen printed images by changing ink layer thickness on papers with different contents of optical brightness agents (OBAs). The minimum content of ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles in the developed fluorescent inks leads to blue luminescence colors regardless the contents of OBAs of the papers and ink layer thickness. The luminescence intensity is directly proportional to ink layer thickness and partly depends on the content of OBAs in the selected paper. In order to fabricate nanophotonic elements of smart packaging with predetermined photoluminescence properties, the influence of investigated factors on photoluminescence properties of printed nanophotonic labels should be taken into account. Olha Hrytsenko, Vitaliy Shvalagin, Galyna Grodziuk, and Vasyl Granchak Copyright © 2017 Olha Hrytsenko et al. All rights reserved. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers Sun, 12 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70%) of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR, EDX, XRD, and SEM. The IR bands observed within 3426–409 cm−1 revealed the formation of new bands after coencapsulation for the N-H, N-H, OH, NH2, CH2, C=O, ′NH2, C=C, NH2, C-N, CH3, $C-N, NH2, C=O, and $CH2. Crystallinity indices for urea with and without silicone doping were found to be 50.9% and 72.1%, respectively, with a distinctive split peak at () 12.30°. The formation of Microdunes and Microballs 3D network sized 0.64 μm was noted. Release profiles demonstrated that 80% N was released in a period of 30 days at RT and pH 7. The release patterns exhibited linear and deformed sigmoid release models. Empirically, the findings demonstrated that it is possible to design urea controlled release fertilizers with varying particle sizes and morphologies by using chitosan-acrylamide coencapsulation. Sempeho Ibahati Siafu Copyright © 2017 Sempeho Ibahati Siafu. All rights reserved. Effect of Vacancy Defects on the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of GaN Sun, 12 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of gallium vacancy () and nitrogen vacancy () defects on the electronic structure and optical properties of GaN using the generalized gradient approximation method within the density functional theory were investigated. The results show that the band gap increases in GaN with vacancy defects. Crystal parameters decrease in GaN with nitrogen vacancy (GaN:) and increase in GaN with gallium vacancy (GaN:). The Ga vacancy introduces defect levels at the top of the valence band, and the defect levels are contributed by N2p electron states. In addition, the energy band shifts to lower energy in GaN: and moves to higher energy in GaN:. The level splitting is observed in the N2p states of GaN: and Ga3d states of GaN:. New peaks appear in lower energy region of imaginary dielectric function in GaN: and GaN:. The main peak moves to higher energy slightly and the intensity decreases. Lili Cai and Cuiju Feng Copyright © 2017 Lili Cai and Cuiju Feng. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Photomagnetic Carbon Surfaces via Redox Assembly Thu, 09 Feb 2017 06:02:57 +0000 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) and the complex Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) were found to be useful building blocks for preparing photomagnetic carbon surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) showed that when APBA was diazotized in acidic sodium nitrite solutions and cathodically reduced with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes, nanoscale films formed on the electrodes. The resulting HOPG had strong affinities for phendione and Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+ as the electrodes were biased in the presence of them, respectively, with voltages more negative than the cathodic peak potentials for phendione/phendiol and Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+/Ru(bpy)2(phendiol)2+ (phendiol = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-diol). However, if APBA was excluded, the affinities did not exist. Boronate ester formation featured prominently in these intermolecular interactions. The average increments in the HOPG surface roughness contributed by APBA and Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+ were roughly 1 : 2, suggesting that the reaction stoichiometry between APBA and Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+ be 1 : 1. Ru(bpy)2(phendione)2+ could also be grafted to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under conditions similar to those for the HOPG using ascorbate as sacrificial donor. The resulting CNTs and HOPG exhibited photomagnetism when exposed to the 473 nm light. The ruthenium complex was shown to be a room-temperature photomagnetism precursor, and APBA was shown to be an effective molecular bridge for the complex and carbon substrates. Y.-L. Song and C. M. Wang Copyright © 2017 Y.-L. Song and C. M. Wang. All rights reserved. WO3-Doped TiO2 Coating on Charcoal Activated with Increase Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Properties Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Sol-Gel Method Tue, 31 Jan 2017 13:44:25 +0000 WO3-doped TiO2 coating on charcoal activated (CA) was prepared by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The samples calcined at the temperature of 500°C for 2 h with a heating rate of 10°C/min were characterized by XRD, EDS, and SEM. The photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of WO3-doped TiO2 coating on CA were investigated by means of degradation of a methylene blue (MB) solution and against the bacteria E. coli, respectively. The effects of WO3 concentration were discussed. The 1% WO3-doped TiO2 coated CA seems to exhibit the higher photocatalytic and antibacterial activity than other samples. The WO3-doped TiO2 coated on CA are expected to be applied as a photocatalyst for water purification. Weerachai Sangchay Copyright © 2017 Weerachai Sangchay. All rights reserved. Deposition and Characterization of Molybdenum Thin Film Using Direct Current Magnetron and Atomic Force Microscopy Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this paper, pure molybdenum (Mo) thin film has been deposited on blank Si substrate by DC magnetron sputtering technique. The deposition condition for all samples has not been changed except for the deposition time in order to study the influence of time on the thickness and surface morphology of molybdenum thin film. The surface profiler has been used to measure the surface thickness. Atomic force microscopy technique was employed to investigate the roughness and grain structure of Mo thin film. The thickness and grain of molybdenum thin film layer has been found to increase with respect to time, while the surface roughness decreases. The average roughness, root mean square roughness, surface skewness, and surface kurtosis parameters are used to analyze the surface morphology of Mo thin film. Smooth surface has been observed. From grain analysis, a uniform grain distribution along the surface has been found. The obtained results allowed us to decide the optimal time to deposit molybdenum thin film layer of 20–100 nm thickness and subsequently patterned as electrodes (source/drain) in carbon nanotube-channel transistor. Muhtade Mustafa Aqil, Mohd Asyadi Azam, Mohd Faizal Aziz, and Rhonira Latif Copyright © 2017 Muhtade Mustafa Aqil et al. All rights reserved. Nanocrystalline Porous Hydrogen Storage Based on Vanadium and Titanium Nitrides Tue, 24 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This review summarizes results of our study of the application of ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology for creation of nanoporous thin-film structures that can absorb more than 6 wt.% of hydrogen. Data of mathematical modeling are presented highlighting the structure formation and component creation of the films during their deposition at the time of simultaneous bombardment by mixed beam of nitrogen and helium ions with energy of 30 keV. Results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that VNx films consist of 150–200 nm particles, boundaries of which contain nanopores of 10–15 nm diameters. Particles themselves consist of randomly oriented 10–20 nm nanograins. Grain boundaries also contain nanopores (3–8 nm). Examination of the absorption characteristics of VNx, TiNx, and Nx films showed that the amount of absorbed hydrogen depends very little on the chemical composition of films, but it is determined by the structure pore. The amount of absorbed hydrogen at 0.3 MPa and 20°C is 6-7 wt.%, whereas the bulk of hydrogen is accumulated in the grain boundaries and pores. Films begin to release hydrogen even at 50°C, and it is desorbed completely at the temperature range of 50–250°C. It was found that the electrical resistance of films during the hydrogen desorption increases 104 times. A. Goncharov, A. Guglya, A. Kalchenko, E. Solopikhina, V. Vlasov, and E. Lyubchenko Copyright © 2017 A. Goncharov et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C Nanocomposites for Lithium Ion Batteries Using Tributyl Phosphate as Phosphor Source Sun, 15 Jan 2017 11:02:57 +0000 The xLiMnPO4·yLi3V2(PO4)3/C (x/y = 1 : 0, 12 : 1, 8 : 1, 6 : 1, 4 : 1, 0 : 1) composite cathode materials are synthesized using tributyl phosphate as a novel organic phosphor source via a solid-state reaction process. All obtained xLiMnPO4·yLi3V2(PO4)3/C composites present similar particles morphology with an average size of ca. 100 nm and low extent agglomeration. The electrochemical performance of pristine LiMnPO4/C can be effectively improved by adding small amounts of Li3V2(PO4)3 additives. The 4LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C has a high discharge capacity of 143 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and keeps its 94% at the end of 100 cycles. Yanming Wang, Bo Zhu, Xiaoyu Liu, and Fei Wang Copyright © 2017 Yanming Wang et al. All rights reserved. Sol-Gel Syntheses of Zinc Oxide and Hydrogenated Zinc Oxide (ZnO:H) Phases Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:50:27 +0000 ZnO synthesized by chemical precipitation with varying starch concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%) as stabilizing agent was used in making ZnO:H when placed in a glass tube under mild heat and hydrogen (H2) gas flow for 2 mins. Observations showed that the sample colour changed from white to light brown and finally to dark brown during the process particularly for the ZnO-starch samples. XRD data of ZnO (0.02%) and ZnO:H (0.02%) showed ZnO as the major phase with Zn(OH)2 impurity phase and a new ZnO:H peak at 2θ, 29.60° for ZnO and ZnO:H, respectively. The estimated particle sizes determined from XRD were 47 and 30 nm, respectively. The SEM of the 0.02% ZnO appeared more microporous and needle-like than those of 0.01%, while the EDX of both confirmed Zn and O as the main components. Different conductivities of 30.90 and 27.50 μS/cm were obtained for ZnO and ZnO:H samples in ethanol, respectively. Also, the UV-Vis absorption for both showed n-type and p-type material absorption bands at 310 cm−1, while the intensities of all the characteristic ZnO IR bands at 430–552 (ZnO vibrations) and 1500–1640 cm−1 (Zn-O stretching) increased for the corresponding ZnO:H samples. Joshua Lelesi Konne and Bright Obum Christopher Copyright © 2017 Joshua Lelesi Konne and Bright Obum Christopher. All rights reserved.