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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2009, Article ID 627840, 13 pages
Research Article

Studies on Multifunctional Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Its Regulatory Molecules in Human Breast Cancer Cells (MCF-7)

Department of Receptor Biology & Tumor Metastasis, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata 700 026, India

Received 24 December 2008; Revised 28 February 2009; Accepted 1 May 2009

Academic Editor: Sofia D. Merajver

Copyright © 2009 Anindita Dutta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered as a potent chemotherapeutic drug for its capability of regulating cell growth and differentiation. We studied the effect of ATRA on MMP-2 in MCF-7, human breast cancer cells, and the probable signaling pathways which are affected by ATRA on regulating pro-MMP-2 activity and expression. Methods. Gelatin zymography, RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, Immunoprecipitation, and Cell adhesion assay are used. Results. Gelatin zymography showed that ATRA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of pro-MMP-2 activity. ATRA treatment downregulates the expression of MT1-MMP, EMMPRIN, FAK, NF-kB, and p-ERK. However, expression of E-cadherin, RAR, and CRABP increased upon ATRA treatment. Binding of cells to extra cellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin reduced significantly after ATRA treatment. Conclusions. The experimental findings clearly showed the inhibition of MMP-2 activity upon ATRA treatment. This inhibitory effect of ATRA on MMP-2 activity in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) may result due to its inhibitory effect on MT1-MMP, EMMPRIN, and upregulation of TIMP-2. This study is focused on the effect of ATRA on MMP, MMP-integrin-E-cadherin interrelationship, and also the effect of the drug on different signaling molecules which may involve in the progression of malignant tumor development.