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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 408131, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/408131
Review Article

Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options in Adrenocortical Cancer Treatment

1Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035, 00189 Rome, Italy
2Research Center, San Pietro Hospital Fatebenefratelli, Via Cassia 600, 00189/Rome, Italy

Received 23 April 2012; Revised 26 June 2012; Accepted 27 June 2012

Academic Editor: Marialuisa Appetecchia

Copyright © 2012 Antonio Stigliano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. The overall survival is five years from detection. Radical surgery is considered the therapy of choice in the first stages of ACC. However postoperative disease-free survival at 5 years is only around 30% and recurrence rates are frequent. o,p’DDD (ortho-, para’-, dichloro-, diphenyl-, dichloroethane, or mitotane), an adrenolytic drug with significant toxicity and unpredictable therapeutic response, is used in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, treatment for this aggressive cancer is still ineffective. Over the past years, the growing interest in ACC has contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies in order to contrast the neoplastic spread. In this paper we discuss the most promising therapies which can be used in this endocrine neoplasia.