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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 737981, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/737981
Review Article

Optimizing Molecular-Targeted Therapies in Ovarian Cancer: The Renewed Surge of Interest in Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers and Cell Signaling Pathways

Molecular Oncology Research Laboratory, Department of Medical BioSciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa

Received 15 September 2011; Accepted 24 November 2011

Academic Editor: Kentaro Nakayama

Copyright © 2012 Donavon Hiss. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The hallmarks of ovarian cancer encompass the development of resistance, disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer cells express gene signatures which pose significant challenges for cancer drug development, therapeutics, prevention and management. Despite enhancements in contemporary tumor debulking surgery, tentative combination regimens and abdominal radiation which can achieve beneficial response rates, the majority of ovarian cancer patients not only experience adverse effects, but also eventually relapse. Therefore, additional therapeutic possibilities need to be explored to minimize adverse events and prolong progression-free and overall response rates in ovarian cancer patients. Currently, a revival in cancer drug discovery is devoted to identifying diagnostic and prognostic ovarian cancer biomarkers. However, the sensitivity and reliability of such biomarkers may be complicated by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, diverse genetic risk factors, unidentified initiation and progression elements, molecular tumor heterogeneity and disease staging. There is thus a dire need to expand existing ovarian cancer therapies with broad-spectrum and individualized molecular targeted approaches. The aim of this review is to profile recent developments in our understanding of the interrelationships among selected ovarian tumor biomarkers, heterogeneous expression signatures and related molecular signal transduction pathways, and their translation into more efficacious targeted treatment rationales.