Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2013, Article ID 732047, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/732047
Review Article

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Breast Cancer: Past, Present, and Future

3rd Medical Department with Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostaseology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Oncologic Center, Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020 Salzburg, Austria

Received 18 December 2012; Accepted 11 July 2013

Academic Editor: James L. Mulshine

Copyright © 2013 Simon P. Gampenrieder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Rastogi, S. J. Anderson, and H. D. Bear, “Preoperative chemotherapy: updates of national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project protocols B-18 and B-27,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 16, p. 2793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Van der Hage, C. J. H. Van de Velde, J.-P. Julien, M. Tubiana-Hulin, C. Vandervelden, and L. Duchateau, “Preoperative chemotherapy in primary operable breast cancer: results from the European Organization for research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 10902,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 4224–4237, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Mauri, N. Pavlidis, and J. P. A. Ioannidis, “Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant systemic treatment in breast cancer: a meta-analysis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 188–194, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Greil, “The still long and winding road to neoadjuvant sytemic therapy as the standard of care in breast cancer,” Breast Care, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 352–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. W. Hutcheon, S. D. Heys, T. K. Sarkar et al., “Docetaxel primary chemotherapy in breast cancer: a five year update of the Aberdeen trial,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 82, supplement 1, p. S6, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  6. F. Cuppone, E. Bria, P. Carlini et al., “Taxanes as primary chemotherapy for early breast cancer: meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Cancer, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 238–246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. E. Smith, R. P. A'Hern, G. A. Coombes et al., “A novel continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen compared with conventional chemotherapy in the neo-adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer: 5 year results of the TOPIC trial,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 751–758, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Chua, I. E. Smith, R. P. A'Hern et al., “Neoadjuvant vinorelbine/epirubicin (VE) versus standard adriamycin/ cyclophosphamide (AC) in operable breast cancer: analysis of response and tolerability in a randomised phase III trial (TOPIC 2),” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1435–1441, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. M. Earl, A. Vallier, L. Hiller et al., “Neo-tAnGo: A neoadjuvant randomized phase III trial of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel ± gemcitabine in the treatment of women with high-risk early breast cancer (EBC): first report of the primary endpoint, pathological complete response (pCR),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, supplement 15, abstract 522, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  10. H. D. Bear, G. Tang, P. Rastogi et al., “Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 4, pp. 310–320, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. G. Steger, R. Greil, R. Jakesz et al., “Pathologic complete response (pCR) in patient subgroups: an analysis of ABCSG-24, a phase III, randomized study of anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant therapy with or without capecitabine in early breast cancer (EBC),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, supplement 15, abstract 530, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Von Minckwitz, M. Rezai, S. Loibl et al., “Capecitabine in addition to anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant treatment in patients with primary breast cancer: phase III GeparQuattro Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2015–2023, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. S. Mieog, J. A. van der Hage, and C. J. van de Velde, “Preoperative chemotherapy for women with operable breast cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD005002, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Mazouni, F. Peintinger, S. Wan-Kau et al., “Residual ductal carcinoma in situ in patients with complete eradication of invasive breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not adversely affect patient outcome,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 19, pp. 2650–2655, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. von Minckwitz, M. Untch, J. U. Blohmer et al., “Definition and impact of pathologic complete response on prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in various intrinsic breast cancer subtypes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 1796–1804, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. L. Gianni, W. Eiermann, V. Semiglazov et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab followed by adjuvant trastuzumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer (the NOAH trial): a randomised controlled superiority trial with a parallel HER2-negative cohort,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9712, pp. 377–384, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Mlineritsch, C. Tausch, C. Singer et al., “Exemestane as primary systemic treatment for hormone receptor positive post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a phase II trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG-17),” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 203–213, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. von Minckwitz, J. U. Blohmer, S. Costa et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy adapted by interim response improves overall survival of primary breast cancer patients—results of the gepartrio trial,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 24, abstract S3-2, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Huober, C. Hanusch, P. A. Fasching et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxel with or without Rad001: results of the non-responder part of the GEPARQUINTO Study,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 24, absrtact 3–6, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Kaufmann, W. Eiermann, M. Schuette et al., “Long-term results from the neoadjuvant GeparDuo trial: A randomized, multicenter, Open Phase III Study comparing a dose-intensified 8-week schedule of doxorubicin hydrochloride and docetaxel (ADoc) with a sequential 24-week schedule of doxorubicin hydrochloride/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel (AC-Doc) regimen as preoperative therapy (NACT) in patients (pts) with operable breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, supplement 15, abstract 537, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  21. G. K. Ellis, W. E. Barlow, J. R. Gralow et al., “Phase III comparison of standard doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus weekly doxorubicin and daily oral cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as neoadjuvant therapy for inflammatory and locally advanced breast cancer: SWOG 0012,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1014–1021, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Untch, V. Möbus, W. Kuhn et al., “Intensive dose-dense compared with conventionally scheduled preoperative chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 2938–2945, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Untch, P. A. Fasching, G. E. Konecny et al., “PREPARE trial: a randomized phase III trial comparing preoperative, dose-dense, dose-intensified chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel and CMF versus a standard-dosed epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel ± darbepoetin alfa in primary breast cancer-results at the time of surgery,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1988–1998, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Untch, G. von Minckwitz, G. E. Konecny et al., “PREPARE trial: a randomized phas III trial comparing preoperative, dose-dense, dose-intensified chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and CMF versus a standard-dosed epirubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without darbepoetin alfa in primary breast cancer-outcome on prognosis,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1999–2006, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Von Minckwitz, M. Untch, E. Nüesch et al., “Impact of treatment characteristics on response of different breast cancer phenotypes: pooled analysis of the German neo-adjuvant chemotherapy trials,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 145–156, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. E. Smith, J. Bryant, A. DeCillis, and S. Anderson, “Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project experience,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1195–1204, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. E. Karp, A. Blackford, K. Visvanathan et al., “Myelodysplatic syndrome and/or acute myelogenous leukemia (MDS and/or AML) after a breast cancer diagnosis: the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) experience,” in Proceedings of the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, vol. 2012, abstract 3–5, 2012.
  28. A. U. Buzdar, N. K. Ibrahim, D. Francis et al., “Significantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 3676–3685, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Untch, P. A. Fasching, G. E. Konecny et al., “Pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab predicts favorable survival in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing breast cancer: results from the TECHNO Trial of the AGO and GBG Study Groups,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 3351–3357, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Untch, M. Rezai, S. Loibl et al., “Neoadjuvant treatment with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: results from the GeparQuattro Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2024–2031, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Baselga, I. Bradbury, and H. Eidtmann, “Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9816, p. 616, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Guarneri,, A. Frassoldati, A. Bottini et al., “Preoperative chemotherapy plus trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer: results of the randomized phase II CHER-LOB study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1989–1995, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. A. Robidoux, G. Tang, P. Rastogi et al., “Evaluation of lapatinib as a component of neoadjuvant therapy for HER2+ operable breast cancer: NSABP protocol B-41,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, abstract LBA506, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Untch, S. Loibl, J. Bischoff et al., “Lapatinib versus trastuzumab in combination with neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (GeparQuinto, GBG 44): a randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 135–144, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Gianni, T. Pienkowski, Y.-H. Im et al., “Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in women with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a randomised multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Schneeweiss, S. Chia, T. Hickish et al., “Neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab concurrent or sequential with an anthracycline-containing or concurrent with an anthracycline-Free standard regimen: A Randomized Phase II Study (TRYPHAENA),” Cancer Research, vol. 71, supplement 3, abstract S5-6, no. 24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. G. Von Minckwitz, H. Eidtmann, M. Rezai et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bevacizumab for HER2-negative breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 4, pp. 299–309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Dowsett, I. E. Smith, S. R. Ebbs et al., “Prognostic value of Ki67 expression after short-term presurgical endocrine therapy for primary breast cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 167–170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Niraula, R. J. Dowling, M. Ennis et al., “Metformin in early breast cancer: a prospective window of opportunity neoadjuvant study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 821–830, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. L. Mauriac, G. MacGrogan, A. Avril et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm: a unicentre randomized trial with a 124-month median follow-up,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Mauriac, M. Durand, A. Avril, and J.-M. Dilhuydy, “Effects of primary chemotherapy in conservative treatment of breast cancer patients with operable tumors larger than 3 cm. results of a randomized trial in a single centre,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 347–354, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. M. Scholl, A. Fourquet, B. Asselain et al., “Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with tumours considered too large for breast conserving surgery: preliminary results of a randomised trial: S6,” European Journal of Cancer A, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 645–652, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Broët, S. M. Scholl, A. De la Rochefordière et al., “Short and long-term effects on survival in breast cancer patients treated by primary chemotherapy: an updated analysis of a randomized trial,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Makris, T. J. Powles, S. E. Ashley et al., “A reduction in the requirements for mastectomy in a randomized trial of neoadjuvant chemoendocrine therapy in primary breast cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1179–1184, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. J. Powles, T. F. Hickish, A. Makris et al., “Randomized trial of chemoendocrine therapy started before or after surgery for treatment of primary breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 547–552, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Fisher, J. Bryant, N. Wolmark et al., “Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 2672–2685, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  47. N. Wolmark, J. Wang, E. Mamounas, J. Bryant, and B. Fisher, “Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, no. 30, pp. 96–102, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Taucher, G. G. Steger, R. Jakesz et al., “The potential risk of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients-results from a prospective randomized trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG-07),” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 309–316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. D. Heys, A. W. Hutcheon, T. K. Sarkar et al., “Neoadjuvant docetaxel in breast cancer: 3-year survival results from the Aberdeen trial,” Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. S69–S74, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. C. Smith, S. D. Heys, and A. W. Hutcheon, “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: significantly enhanced response with docetaxel,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1456–1466, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  51. H. D. Bear, S. Anderson, A. Brown et al., “The effect on tumor response of adding sequential preoperative docetaxel to preoperative doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide: preliminary results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 22, pp. 4165–4174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. D. Bear, S. Anderson, and R. E. Smith, “Sequential preoperative or postoperative docetaxel added to preoperative doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide for operable breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-27,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 2019–2027, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  53. T. R. J. Evans, A. Yellowlees, E. Foster et al., “Phase III randomized trial of doxorubicin and docetaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as primary medical therapy in women with breast cancer: an Anglo-Celtic Cooperative Oncology Group Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 2988–2995, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. V. Diéras, P. Fumoleau, G. Romieu et al., “Randomized Parallel Study of doxorubicin plus paclitaxel and doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant treatment of patients with breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 24, pp. 4958–4965, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. von Minckwitz, J.-U. Blohmer, G. Raab et al., “In vivo chemosensitivity-adapted preoperative chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer: The GEPARTRIO pilot study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. Von Minckwitz, S. Kümmel, P. Vogel et al., “Intensified neoadjuvant chemotherapy in early-responding breast cancer: phase III randomized GeparTrio study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 552–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Von Minckwitz, S. Kümmel, P. Vogel et al., “Neoadjuvant vinorelbine-capecitabine versus docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in early nonresponsive breast cancer: phase III randomized gepartrio trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 542–551, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Von Minckwitz, B. M. Müller, S. Loibl et al., “Cytoplasmic poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase expression is predictive and prognostic in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 2150–2157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Von Minckwitz, G. Raab, A. Caputo et al., “Doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel every 21 days compared with doxorubicin and docetaxel every 14 days as preoperative treatment in operable breast cancer: the GEPARDUO study of the German Breast Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 2676–2685, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Mohamed, G. Raab, M. Schuette et al., “Dose-dense versus sequential adriamcycin/docetaxel combination as preoperative chemotherapy (pCHT) in operable breast cancer (T2-3, N0-2,M0)—primary endpoint analysis of the GEPARDUO-Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, abstract 168, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  61. G. K. Ellis, W. E. Barlow, J. R. Gralow et al., “Phase III comparison of standard doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide versus weekly doxorubicin and daily oral cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as neoadjuvant therapy for inflammatory and locally advanced breast cancer: SWOG 0012,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1014–1021, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. K. Arun, K. Dhinghra, V. Valero et al., “Phase III randomized trial of dose intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without G-CSF in locally advanced breast cancer: long-term results,” Oncologist, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1527–1534, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Baselga, I. Bradbury, and H. Eidtmann, “First results of the NeoALTTO trial (BIG 01-06/EGF 106903): a phase III, randomized, open label, Neoadjuvant Study of lapatinib, trastuzumab, and their combination plus paclitaxel in Women with HER2-positive primary breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, supplement 24, abstract S3-3, pp. 157–158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar