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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 847383, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/847383
Review Article

Evolving Concepts: Immunity in Oncology from Targets to Treatments

1Department of Hematology Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
3Department of Hematology Oncology, Hofstra North Shore LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA

Received 17 December 2014; Revised 13 April 2015; Accepted 14 April 2015

Academic Editor: Bruno Vincenzi

Copyright © 2015 Hina Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cancer is associated with global immune suppression of the host. Malignancy-induced immune suppressive effect can be circumvented by blocking the immune checkpoint and tip the immune balance in favor of immune stimulation and unleash cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Human antibodies directed against immune checkpoint proteins: cytotoxic T lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), have shown therapeutic efficacy in advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies. Immune check point blockade antibodies lead to diminished tolerance to self and enhanced immune ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. As a class these agents have immune-related adverse events due to decreased ability of effector immune cells to discriminate between self and non-self. Seventy percent of patients participating in clinical trials have experienced anticancer activities and varying degrees of immune mediated dose-limiting side effects.