Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2015, Article ID 917606, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/917606
Review Article

Exercise Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Breast Cancer Survivors

1Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, 212–2177 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
2Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Diamond Health Care Centre, 9th Floor, 2775 Laurel Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9

Received 5 September 2014; Accepted 11 December 2014

Academic Editor: Christine Brezden-Masley

Copyright © 2015 Amy A. Kirkham and Margot K. Davis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Boyle and B. Levin, Eds., World Cancer Report, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2008.
  2. Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada, Canadian cancer statistics 2007, Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada, Toronto, Canada, 2007.
  3. L. W. Jones, M. J. Haykowsky, J. J. Swartz, P. S. Douglas, and J. R. Mackey, “Early breast cancer therapy and cardiovascular injury,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 1435–1441, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Riihimäki, H. Thomsen, A. Brandt, J. Sundquist, and K. Hemminki, “Death causes in breast cancer patients,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 604–610, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. E. Minton and P. N. Munster, “Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea and fertility in women undergoing adjuvant treatment for breast cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 466–472, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. World Heart Federation, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, World Heart Federation, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
  7. M. S. Ewer and S. Glück, “A woman's heart: the impact of adjuvant endocrine therapy on cardiovascular health,” Cancer, vol. 115, no. 9, pp. 1813–1826, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. L. Patnaik, T. Byers, C. DiGuiseppi, D. Dabelea, and T. D. Denberg, “Cardiovascular disease competes with breast cancer as the leading cause of death for older females diagnosed with breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 3, article R64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. R. Lehenbauer Ludke, A. A.-R. S. Al-Shudiefat, S. Dhingra, D. S. Jassal, and P. K. Singal, “A concise description of cardioprotective strategies in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 756–763, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Chang, “Chemotherapy dose reduction and delay in clinical practiceevaluating the risk to patient outcome in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 11–14, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. E. R. Warburton, C. W. Nicol, and S. S. D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 801–809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. H. Schmitz, K. S. Courneya, C. Matthews et al., “American college of sports medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 1409–1426, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. A. Gewirtz, “A critical evaluation of the mechanisms of action proposed for the antitumor effects of the anthracycline antibiotics adriamycin and daunorubicin,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 727–741, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Minotti, P. Menna, E. Salvatorelli, G. Cairo, and L. Gianni, “Anthracyclines: molecular advances and pharmacologie developments in antitumor activity and cardiotoxicity,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 185–229, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Husain and S. M. Somani, “Response of cardiac antioxidant system to alcohol and exercise training in the rat,” Alcohol, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 301–307, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Ascensão, J. Magalhães, J. Soares et al., “Endurance exercise training attenuates morphological signs of cardiac muscle damage induced by doxorubicin in male mice,” Basic and Applied Myology, vol. 16, pp. 27–35, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  17. A. Ascensão, J. Magalhães, J. Soares et al., “Endurance training attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiac oxidative damage in mice,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 451–460, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Ascensão, J. Magalhães, J. M. C. Soares et al., “Moderate endurance training prevents doxorubicin-induced in vivo mitochondriopathy and reduces the development of cardiac apoptosis,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. H722–H731, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Ascensão, R. Ferreira, P. J. Oliveira, and J. Magalhães, “Effects of endurance training and acute doxorubicin treatment on rat heart mitochondrial alterations induced by in vitro anoxia-reoxygenation,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 3-4, pp. 159–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Ashrafi, V. D. Roshan, and S. Mahjoub, “Cardioprotective effects of aerobic regular exercise against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 6, pp. 2380–2388, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Ashrafi and V. D. Roshan, “Is short-term exercise a therapeutic tool for improvement of cardioprotection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity? An experimental controlled protocol in rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 4025–4030, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. Marques-Aleixo, E. Santos-Alves, D. Mariani et al., “Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress,” Mitochondrion, vol. 20, pp. 22–33, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. J. Chicco, D. S. Hydock, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Low-intensity exercise training during doxorubicin treatment protects against cardiotoxicity,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 519–527, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. N. Kavazis, A. J. Smuder, K. Min, N. Tümer, and S. K. Powers, “Short-term exercise training protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial damage independent of HSP72,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 299, no. 5, pp. H1515–H1524, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. A. Geisberg and D. B. Sawyer, “Mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity and strategies to decrease cardiac damage,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 404–410, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Ascensão, J. Lumini-Oliveira, N. G. Machado et al., “Acute exercise protects against calcium-induced cardiac mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in doxorubicin-treated rats,” Clinical Science, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 37–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. R. Duchen, “Mitochondria and calcium: from cell signalling to cell death,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 529, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. S. Hydock, C.-Y. Lien, B. T. Jensen, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Exercise preconditioning provides long-term protection against early chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 47–57, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Hayward, C.-Y. Lien, B. T. Jensen, D. S. Hydock, and C. M. Schneider, “Exercise training mitigates anthracycline-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in a juvenile rat model,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 149–154, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Zhang, X. Liu, T. Bawa-Khalfe et al., “Identification of the molecular basis of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity,” Nature Medicine, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1639–1642, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Vejpongsa and E. T. H. Yeh, “Topoisomerase 2β: a promising molecular target for primary prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Botta, I. Laher, J. Beam et al., “Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e70248, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Li, C. Mühlfeld, B. Niemann et al., “Mitochondrial biogenesis and PGC-1α deacetylation by chronic treadmill exercise: differential response in cardiac and skeletal muscle,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1221–1234, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. N. Kavazis, A. J. Smuder, and S. K. Powers, “Effects of short-term endurance exercise training on acute doxorubicin-induced FoxO transcription in cardiac and skeletal muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 223–230, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. S. Hydock, C.-Y. Lien, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Exercise preconditioning protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 808–817, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. S. Hydock, K. Y. Wonders, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Voluntary wheel running in rats receiving doxorubicin: effects on running activity and cardiac myosin heavy chain,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 4401–4407, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. S. Hydock, C.-Y. Lien, B. T. Jensen, T. L. Parry, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Rehabilitative exercise in a rat model of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 237, no. 12, pp. 1483–1492, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Miyata, W. Minobe, M. R. Bristow, and L. A. Leinwand, “Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in the failing and nonfailing human heart,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 386–390, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Ascensão, R. Ferreira, and J. Magalhães, “Exercise-induced cardioprotection—biochemical, morphological and functional evidence in whole tissue and isolated mitochondria,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 16–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. J. Chicco, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Exercise training attenuates acute doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 182–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. T. Kuvin, A. R. Patel, K. A. Sliney et al., “Assessment of peripheral vascular endothelial function with finger arterial pulse wave amplitude,” American Heart Journal, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 168–174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Kelm, “Flow-mediated dilatation in human circulation: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects,” The American Journal of Physiology —Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 282, no. 1, pp. H1–H5, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Hayward, D. Hydock, N. Gibson, S. Greufe, E. Bredahl, and T. Parry, “Tissue retention of doxorubicin and its effects on cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle function,” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 177–187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. S. Celermajer, “Reliable endothelial function testing: at our fingertips?” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 19, pp. 2428–2430, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. A. Beckman, A. Thakore, B. H. Kalinowski, J. R. Harris, and M. A. Creager, “Radiation therapy impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 761–765, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. W. Corn, B. J. Trock, and R. L. Goodman, “Irradiation-related ischemic heart disease,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 741–750, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. M. Gaya and R. F. U. Ashford, “Cardiac complications of radiation therapy,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 153–159, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Virmani, A. Farb, A. J. Carter, and R. M. Jones, “Pathology of radiation-induced coronary artery disease in human and pig,” Cardiovascular Radiation Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98–101, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Sandoo, G. D. Kitas, and A. R. Carmichael, “Endothelial dysfunction as a determinant of trastuzumab-mediated cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 1147–1151, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. J. Green, A. Spence, J. R. Halliwill, N. T. Cable, and D. H. J. Thijssen, “Exercise and vascular adaptation in asymptomatic humans,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 57–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Gielen, G. Schuler, and V. Adams, “Cardiovascular effects of exercise training: molecular mechanisms,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 1221–1238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. Hayward, R. Ruangthai, C. M. Schneider, R. M. Hyslop, R. Strange, and K. C. Westerlind, “Training enhances vascular relaxation after chemotherapy-induced vasoconstriction,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 428–434, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. N. Werner, S. Kosiol, T. Schiegl et al., “Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and cardiovascular outcomes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 10, pp. 999–1007, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. U. Laufs, A. Urhausen, N. Werner et al., “Running exercise of different duration and intensity: effect on endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 407–414, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. W. Jones, D. R. Fels, M. West et al., “Modulation of circulating angiogenic factors and tumor biology by aerobic training in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 925–937, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Aries, P. Paradis, C. Lefebvre, R. J. Schwartz, and M. Nemer, “Essential role of GATA-4 in cell survival and drug-induced cardiotoxicity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 18, pp. 6975–6980, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. H. Korzick and R. L. Moore, “Chronic exercise enhances cardiac α1-adrenergic inotropic responsiveness in rats with mild hypertension,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 271, no. 6, pp. H2599–H2608, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Xiao, T. Xu, J. Li et al., “Exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy initiates activation of cardiac progenitor cells,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, vol. 7, pp. 663–669, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  59. D. B. Sawyer, X. Peng, B. Chen, L. Pentassuglia, and C. C. Lim, “Mechanisms of anthracycline cardiac injury: can we identify strategies for cardioprotection?” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 105–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. D. Waring, C. Vicinanza, A. Papalamprou et al., “The adult heart responds to increased workload with physiologic hypertrophy, cardiac stem cell activation, and new myocyte formation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 35, no. 39, pp. 2722–2731, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. M. Scott, S. Lakoski, J. R. Mackey, P. S. Douglas, M. J. Haykowsky, and L. W. Jones, “The potential role of aerobic exercise to modulate cardiotoxicity of molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics,” Oncologist, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 221–231, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. B. Combs, S. L. Hudman, and H. W. Bonner, “Effect of exercise stress upon the acute toxicity of adriamycin in mice,” Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 395–398, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. W. Mitchell, “Effects of adriamycin on heart mitochondrial function in rested and exercised rats,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 877–885, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Y. Wonders, D. S. Hydock, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Acute exercise protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 147–154, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. J. Chicco, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Voluntary exercise protects against acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in the isolated perfused rat heart,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. R424–R431, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Werner, M. Hanhoun, T. Widmann et al., “Effects of physical exercise on myocardial telomere-regulating proteins, survival pathways, and apoptosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 470–482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. T. Jensen, The effect of exercise on cardiac function and doxorubicin accumulation in left ventricular tissue of rats [Ph.D. dissertation], University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colo, USA, 2011.
  68. K. Y. Wonders, D. S. Hydock, S. Greufe, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Endurance exercise training preserves cardiac function in rats receiving doxorubicin and the HER-2 inhibitor GW2974,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1105–1113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. S. Hydock, T. L. Parry, B. T. Jensen, C.-Y. Lien, C. M. Schneider, and R. Hayward, “Effects of endurance training on combined goserelin acetate and doxorubicin treatment-induced cardiac dysfunction,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 685–692, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Jones, V. Dolinsky, M. Haykowsky et al., “Effects of aerobic training to improve cardiovascular function and prevent cardiac remodeling after cytotoxic therapy in early breast cancer,” in Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 102nd Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fla, USA, April 2011, abstract 5024. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. K. S. Courneya, R. J. Segal, J. R. Mackey et al., “Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 28, pp. 4396–4404, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. L. Schwartz, K. Winters-Stone, and B. Gallucci, “Exercise effects on bone mineral density in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy,” Oncology Nursing Forum, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 627–633, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. J. Haykowsky, J. R. Mackey, R. B. Thompson, L. W. Jones, and D. I. Paterson, “Adjuvant trastuzumab induces ventricular remodeling despite aerobic exercise training,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 4963–4967, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Héon, M. Bernier, N. Servant et al., “Dexrazoxane does not protect against doxorubicin-induced damage in young rats,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. H499–H506, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. Matsuura, T. M. C. Brunini, L. C. M. M. Carvalho et al., “Exercise training in doxorubicin-induced heart failure: effects on the L-arginine-NO pathway and vascular reactivity,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. M. Abu-Khalaf and L. Harris, “Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity: risk assessment and management,” Oncology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 239–252, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. F. Fletcher, G. Balady, S. N. Blair et al., “Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: a statement for health professionals by the committee on exercise and cardiac rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 857–862, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Yancik, R. J. Havlik, M. N. Wesley et al., “Cancer and comorbidity in older patients: a descriptive profile,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 399–412, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Mouhayar and A. Salahudeen, “Hypertension in cancer patients,” Texas Heart Institute Journal, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 263–265, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. G. Alexopoulos, S. Pournaras, M. Vaslamatzis, A. Avgerinos, and S. Raptis, “Changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in cancer patients during chemotherapy,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 412–416, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. R. Love, D. A. Wiebe, P. A. Newcomb et al., “Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 115, no. 11, pp. 860–864, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. W. Thompat, S. Sukarayodhin, A. Sornprom, Y. Sudjaroen, and P. Laisupasin, “Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients,” Journal of Laboratory Physicians, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 38, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. K. Hasija and H. K. Bagga, “Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. E. Kökoǧlu, I. Karaarslan, H. Mehmet Karaarslan, and H. Baloǧlu, “Alterations of serum lipids and lipoproteins in breast cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 175–178, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J.-B. Lopez-Saez, J. A. Martinez-Rubio, M. M. Alvarez et al., “Metabolic profile of breast cancer in a population of women in southern Spain,” Open Clinical Cancer Journal, vol. 2, pp. 1–6, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. N. K. Yadav, B. Poudel, C. Thanpari, and B. C. Koner, “Assessment of biochemical profiles in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with breast cancer,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 3385–3388, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. R. Carmichael and T. Bates, “Obesity and breast cancer: a review of the literature,” Breast, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 85–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. J. Goodwin, M. Ennis, K. I. Pritchard et al., “Adjuvant treatment and onset of menopause predict weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 120–129, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. K. S. Courneya, P. T. Katzmarzyk, and E. Bacon, “Physical activity and obesity in Canadian cancer survivors: population-based estimates from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey,” Cancer, vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 2475–2482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. W. Jones, N. D. Eves, M. Haykowsky, S. J. Freedland, and J. R. Mackey, “Exercise intolerance in cancer and the role of exercise therapy to reverse dysfunction,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 598–605, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. G. Lakoski, N. D. Eves, P. S. Douglas, and L. W. Jones, “Exercise rehabilitation in patients with cancer,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 288–296, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. W. Jones, K. S. Courneya, J. R. Mackey et al., “Cardiopulmonary function and age-related decline across the breast cancer: survivorship continuum,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 2530–2537, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. B. Peel, X. Sui, S. A. Adams, J. R. HIbert, J. W. Hardin, and S. N. Blair, “A prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and breast cancer mortality,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 742–748, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. L. Lipscombe, W. W. Chan, L. Yun, P. C. Austin, G. M. Anderson, and P. A. Rochon, “Incidence of diabetes among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors,” Diabetologia, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 476–483, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. Yancik, M. N. Wesley, L. A. G. Ries, R. J. Havlik, B. K. Edwards, and J. W. Yates, “Effect of age and comorbidity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 55 years and older,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 7, pp. 885–892, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. J. Goodwin, M. Ennis, M. Bahl et al., “High insulin levels in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients reflect underlying insulin resistance and are associated with components of the insulin resistance syndrome,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 517–525, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. J. Goodwin, M. Ennis, K. I. Pritchard et al., “Fasting insulin and outcome in early-stage breast cancer: results of a prospective cohort study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. G. G. Kolden, T. J. Strauman, A. Ward et al., “A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: feasibility and health benefits,” Psycho-Oncology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 447–456, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. M. Schneider, C. C. Hsieh, L. K. Sprod, S. D. Carter, and R. Hayward, “Effects of supervised exercise training on cardiopulmonary function and fatigue in breast cancer survivors during and after treatment,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 918–925, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C.-J. Kim, D.-H. Kang, B. A. Smith, and K. A. Landers, “Cardiopulmonary responses and adherence to exercise in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy,” Cancer Nursing, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 156–165, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. C. Hsieh, L. K. Sprod, D. S. Hydock, S. D. Carter, R. Hayward, and C. M. Schneider, “Effects of a supervised exercise intervention on recovery from treatment regimens in breast cancer survivors,” Oncology Nursing Forum, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 909–915, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. S. Fairey, K. S. Courneya, C. J. Field et al., “Effect of exercise training on C-reactive protein in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 381–388, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. B. M. Pinto, M. M. Clark, N. C. Maruyama, and S. I. Feder, “Psychological and fitness changes associated with exercise participation among women with breast cancer,” Psycho-Oncology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 118–126, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. E. Guinan, J. Hussey, J. M. Broderick et al., “The effect of aerobic exercise on metabolic and inflammatory markers in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1983–1992, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. Nuri, M. R. Kordi, M. Moghaddasi et al., “Effect of combination exercise training on metabolic syndrome parameters in postmenopausal women with breast cancer,” Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–242, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. L. Campbell, C. L. Van Patten, S. E. Neil et al., “Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and serum biomarkers in breast cancer survivors with overweight and obesity,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 559–567, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. W. Demark-Wahnefried, L. D. Case, K. Blackwell et al., “Results of a diet/exercise feasibility trial to prevent adverse body composition change in breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy,” Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 70–79, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. G. MacVicar, M. L. Winningham, and J. L. Nickel, “Effects of aerobic interval training on cancer patients' functional capacity,” Nursing Research, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 348–351, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. S. Drouin, T. J. Young, J. Beeler et al., “Random control clinical trial on the effects of aerobic exercise training on erythrocyte levels during radiation treatment for breast cancer,” Cancer, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 2490–2495, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. K. S. Courneya, J. R. Mackey, G. J. Bell, L. W. Jones, C. J. Field, and A. S. Fairey, “Randomized controlled trial of exercise training in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: cardiopulmonary and quality of life outcomes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1660–1668, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. F. Herrero, A. F. San Juan, S. J. Fleck et al., “Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled pilot trial,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 573–580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. S. Fairey, K. S. Courneya, C. J. Field, G. J. Bell, L. W. Jones, and J. R. Mackey, “Effects of exercise training on fasting insulin, insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factors, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 721–727, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. J. A. Ligibel, N. Campbell, A. Partridge et al., “Impact of a mixed strength and endurance exercise intervention on insulin levels in breast cancer survivors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 907–912, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. M. L. Irwin, K. Varma, M. Alvarez-Reeves et al., “Randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise on insulin and insulin-like growth factors in breast cancer survivors: the yale exercise and survivorship study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 306–313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl III, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger Jr., L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 14, pp. 1093–1098, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. Stamler, R. Stamler, and J. D. Neaton, “Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and cardiovascular risks: US population data,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 598–615, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. Stamler, G. Rose, R. Stamler, P. Elliott, A. Dyer, and M. Marmot, “INTERSALT study findings. Public health and medical care implications,” Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 570–577, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. P. Thavendiranathan, A. D. Grant, T. Negishi, J. C. Plana, Z. B. Popović, and T. H. Marwick, “Reproducibility of echocardiographic techniques for sequential assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes: application to patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. P. Thavendiranathan, F. Poulin, K.-D. Lim, J. C. Plana, A. Woo, and T. H. Marwick, “Use of myocardial strain imaging by echocardiography for the early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients during and after cancer chemotherap: a systematic review,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 63, no. 25, pp. 2751–2768, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. A. L. Baggish, K. Yared, F. Wang et al., “The impact of endurance exercise training on left ventricular systolic mechanics,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 295, no. 3, pp. H1109–H1116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. R. A. Argyle and S. G. Ray, “Stress and strain: double trouble or useful tool?” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 716–722, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. N. Fallah-Rad, J. R. Walker, A. Wassef et al., “The utility of cardiac biomarkers, tissue velocity and strain imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in predicting early left ventricular dysfunction in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor II-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab therapy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 22, pp. 2263–2270, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. G.-Y. Cho, T. H. Marwick, H.-S. Kim, M.-K. Kim, K.-S. Hong, and D.-J. Oh, “Global 2-dimensional strain as a new prognosticator in patients with heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 618–624, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Bertini, A. C. T. Ng, M. L. Antoni et al., “Global longitudinal strain predicts long-term survival in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 383–391, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. M. Iacoviello, A. Puzzovivo, P. Guida et al., “Independent role of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in predicting prognosis of chronic heart failure patients,” Echocardiography, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 803–811, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. T. Stanton, R. Leano, and T. H. Marwick, “Prediction of all-cause mortality from global longitudinal speckle strain: comparison with ejection fraction and wall motion scoring,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 356–364, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. J. Lekakis, P. Abraham, A. Balbarini et al., “Methods for evaluating endothelial function: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripheral Circulation,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 775–789, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Dolci, R. Dominici, D. Cardinale, M. T. Sandri, and M. Panteghini, “Biochemical markers for prediction of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity systematic review of the literature and recommendations for use,” The American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 688–695, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. F. J. F. Broeyer, S. Osanto, H. J. Ritsema Van Eck et al., “Evaluation of biomarkers for cardiotoxicity of anthracyclin-based chemotherapy,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 961–968, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. S. Romano, S. Fratini, E. Ricevuto et al., “Serial measurements of NT-proBNP are predictive of not-high-dose anthracycline cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 1663–1668, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. M. T. Sandri, M. Salvatici, D. Cardinale et al., “N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide after high-dose chemotherapy: a marker predictive of cardiac dysfunction?” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1405–1410, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. A. Kittiwarawut, Y. Vorasettakarnkij, S. Tanasanvimon, S. Manasnayakorn, and V. Sriuranpong, “Serum NT-proBNP in the early detection of doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction,” Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. H. Sawaya, I. A. Sebag, J. C. Plana et al., “Assessment of echocardiography and biomarkers for the extended prediction of cardiotoxicity in patients treated with anthracyclines, taxanes, and trastuzumab,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 596–603, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. H. Sawaya, I. A. Sebag, J. C. Plana et al., “Early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity in chemotherapy-treated patients,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 1375–1380, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. B. Ky, M. Putt, H. Sawaya et al., “Early increases in multiple biomarkers predict subsequent cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer treated with doxorubicin, taxanes, and trastuzumab,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 809–816, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. H. W. Auner, C. Tinchon, W. Linkesch et al., “Prolonged monitoring of troponin T for the detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity in adults with hematological malignancies,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 218–222, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. F. Dodos, T. Halbsguth, E. Erdmann, and U. C. Hoppe, “Usefulness of myocardial performance index and biochemical markers for early detection of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in adults,” Clinical Research in Cardiology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 318–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. C. Nisticò, E. Bria, F. Cuppone et al., “Troponin-T and myoglobin plus echocardiographic evaluation for monitoring early cardiotoxicity of weekly epirubicin-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 227–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. D. Cardinale, M. T. Sandri, A. Martinoni et al., “Myocardial injury revealed by plasma troponin I in breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 710–715, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. D. Cardinale, M. T. Sandri, A. Colombo et al., “Prognostic value of troponin I in cardiac risk stratification of cancer patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 22, pp. 2749–2754, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. M. T. Sandri, D. Cardinale, L. Zorzino et al., “Minor increases in plasma troponin I predict decreased left ventricular ejection fraction after high-dose chemotherapy,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 248–252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Feola, O. Garrone, M. Occelli et al., “Cardiotoxicity after anthracycline chemotherapy in breast carcinoma: effects on left ventricular ejection fraction, troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 194–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. B. C. Drafts, K. M. Twomley, R. D'Agostino Jr. et al., “Low to moderate dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with early noninvasive imaging evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease,” JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 877–885, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. B. Erkus, S. Demirtas, A. A. Yarpuzlu, M. Can, Y. Genc, and L. Karaca, “Early prediction of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 506–509, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. G. Mercuro, C. Cadeddu, A. Piras et al., “Early epirubicin-induced myocardial dysfunction revealed by serial tissue Doppler echocardiography: correlation with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers,” Oncologist, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1124–1133, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. Polena, M. Shikara, S. Naik et al., “Troponin I as a marker of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity,” Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, vol. 48, pp. 142–144, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. D. Cardinale, A. Colombo, R. Torrisi et al., “Trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity: clinical and prognostic implications of troponin I evaluation,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 25, pp. 3910–3916, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. T. Ahmad, M. Fiuzat, D. B. Mark et al., “The effects of exercise on cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with chronic heart failure,” American Heart Journal, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 193.e1–202.e1, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. O. Schulz and A. Kromer, “Cardiac troponin I: a potential marker of exercise intolerance in patients with moderate heart failure,” American Heart Journal, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. U. Wisløff, Ø. Ellingsen, and O. J. Kemi, “High-intensity interval training to maximize cardiac benefits of exercise training?” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 139–146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. U. Wisløff, A. Støylen, J. P. Loennechen et al., “Superior cardiovascular effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: a randomized study,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 24, pp. 3086–3094, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. C. A. Emter and D. K. Bowles, “Curing the cure: utilizing exercise to limit cardiotoxicity,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 806–807, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. M. J. Haykowsky, Y. Liang, D. Pechter, L. W. Jones, F. A. McAlister, and A. M. Clark, “A Meta-analysis of the effect of exercise training on left ventricular remodeling in heart failure patients: the benefit depends on the type of training performed,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 2329–2336, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. K. M. Baldwin and F. Haddad, “Invited review: effects of different activity and inactivity paradigms on myosin heavy chain gene expression in striated muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 345–357, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. E. L. de Beer, A. E. Bottone, J. van der Velden, and E. E. Voest, “Doxorubicin impairs crossbridge turnover kinetics in skinned cardiac trabeculae after acute and chronic treatment,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1152–1157, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. H.-B. Kwak, W. Song, and J. M. Lawler, “Exercise training attenuates age-induced elevation in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, apoptosis, and remodeling in the rat heart,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 791–793, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. Marcil, K. Bourduas, A. Ascah, and Y. Burelle, “Exercise training induces respiratory substrate-specific decrease in Ca2+-induced permeability transition pore opening in heart mitochondria,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 290, no. 4, pp. H1549–H1557, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. D. Montaigne, X. Marechal, S. Preau et al., “Doxorubicin induces mitochondrial permeability transition and contractile dysfunction in the human myocardium,” Mitochondrion, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. V. Adams, A. Linke, S. Gielen, S. Erbs, R. Hambrecht, and G. Schuler, “Modulation of Murf-1 and MAFbx expression in the myocardium by physical exercise training,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 293–299, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. Y. Shi, M. Moon, S. Dawood, B. McManus, and P. P. Liu, “Mechanisms and management of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity,” Herz, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 296–305, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. S. Hamed, I. Barshack, G. Luboshits et al., “Erythropoietin improves myocardial performance in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 1876–1883, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. H. A. Demirel, K. L. Hamilton, R. A. Shanely, N. Tümer, M. J. Koroly, and S. K. Powers, “Age and attenuation of exercise-induced myocardial HSP72 accumulation,” American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 285, no. 4, pp. H1609–H1615, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. T. Ohtsuboa, E. Kanob, K. Uedac et al., “Enhancement of heat-induced heat shock protein (hsp)72 accumulation by doxorubicin (Dox) in vitro,” Cancer Letters, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. O. J. Kemi, M. Ceci, G. Condorelli, G. L. Smith, and U. Wisloff, “Myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase function is increased by aerobic interval training,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 145–148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. R. D. Olson, H. A. Gambliel, R. E. Vestal, S. E. Shadle, H. A. Charlier Jr., and B. J. Cusack, “Doxorubicin cardiac dysfunction: effects on calcium regulatory proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and triiodothyronine,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 269–283, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. V. W. Dolinsky, K. J. Rogan, M. M. Sung et al., “Both aerobic exercise and resveratrol supplementation attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury in mice,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 305, no. 2, pp. E243–E253, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. P. M. Siu, R. W. Bryner, J. K. Marty, and S. E. Alway, “Apoptotic adaptations from exercise training in skeletal and cardiac muscles,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1150–1152, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. S. H. Kim, D. Kim, G. S. Jung, J. H. Um, B. S. Chung, and C. D. Kang, “Involvement of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway in differential regulation of heat shock proteins by anticancer drugs,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 262, no. 2, pp. 516–522, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. D. L. Coven, X. Hu, L. Cong et al., “Physiological role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart: graded activation during exercise,” American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 285, no. 3, pp. E629–E636, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. M. Tokarska-Schlattner, M. Zaugg, R. da Silva et al., “Acute toxicity of doxorubicin on isolated perfused heart: response of kinases regulating energy supply,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. H37–H47, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. P. Boström, N. Mann, J. Wu et al., “C/EBPβ controls exercise-induced cardiac growth and protects against pathological cardiac remodeling,” Cell, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 1072–1083, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. A. de Angelis, E. Piegari, D. Cappetta et al., “Anthracycline cardiomyopathy is mediated by depletion of the cardiac stem cell pool and is rescued by restoration of progenitor cell function,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 276–292, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. Y. Yang, H. Zhang, X. Li, T. Yang, and Q. Jiang, “Effects of PPARα/PGC-1α on the myocardial energy metabolism during heart failure in the doxorubicin induced dilated cardiomyopathy in mice,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 7, pp. 2435–2442, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  174. D. B. Sawyer, C. Zuppinger, T. A. Miller, H. M. Eppenberger, and T. M. Suter, “Modulation of anthracycline-induced myofibrillar disarray in rat ventricular myocytes by neuregulin-1β and anti-erbB2: potential mechanism for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 13, pp. 1551–1554, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. Y. Kim, A.-G. Ma, K. Kitta et al., “Anthracycline-induced suppression of GATA-4 transcription factor: implication in the regulation of cardiac myocyte apoptosis,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 368–377, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus