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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2015, Article ID 967472, 26 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/967472
Review Article

Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

1Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
2Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2B7
3Division of Medical Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
4Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8

Received 13 June 2015; Revised 7 August 2015; Accepted 12 August 2015

Academic Editor: Massimo Aglietta

Copyright © 2015 Rani Kanthan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.