Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2015, Article ID 967472, 26 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/967472
Review Article

Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

1Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
2Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2B7
3Division of Medical Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
4Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8

Received 13 June 2015; Revised 7 August 2015; Accepted 12 August 2015

Academic Editor: Massimo Aglietta

Copyright © 2015 Rani Kanthan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. H. E. Lai and W. Y. Lau, “Gallbladder cancer—a comprehensive review,” Surgeon, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 101–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. X. Zhu, T. S. Hong, A. F. Hezel, and D. A. Kooby, “Current management of gallbladder carcinoma,” The Oncologist, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 168–181, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. U. Dutta, “Gallbladder cancer: can newer insights improve the outcome?” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 642–653, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Ramos-Font, M. Gõmez-Rio, A. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Jiménez-Heffernan, R. S. Sánchez, and J. M. Llamas-Elvira, “Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of gallbladder cancer,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 218–224, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Gallbladder Cancer, American Cancer Society, 2015, http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003101-pdf.pdf.
  6. G. Miller and W. R. Jarnagin, “Gallbladder carcinoma,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 306–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Hundal and E. A. Shaffer, “Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome,” Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 99–109, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. P. Kaushik, “Current perspectives in gallbladder carcinoma,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 848–854, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Rustagi and C. A. Dasanu, “Risk factors for gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma: similarities, differences and updates,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Vijayakumar, A. Vijayakumar, V. Patil, M. N. Mallikarjuna, and B. S. Shivaswamy, “Early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma: an algorithm approach,” ISRN Radiology, vol. 2013, Article ID 239424, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Hariharan, A. Saied, and H. M. Kocher, “Analysis of mortality rates for gallbladder cancer across the world,” HPB, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 327–331, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Cariati, E. Piromalli, and F. Cetta, “Gallbladder cancers: associated conditions, histological types, prognosis, and prevention,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 562–569, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Y. Wolin, K. Carson, and G. A. Colditz, “Obesity and cancer,” The Oncologist, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 556–565, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Seretis, E. Lagoudianakis, G. Gemenetzis, F. Seretis, A. Pappas, and S. Gourgiotis, “Metaplastic changes in chronic cholecystitis: implications for early diagnosis and surgical intervention to prevent the gallbladder metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence,” Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. Wiles, M. Varadpande, S. Muly, and J. Webb, “Growth rate and malignant potential of small gallbladder polyps—systematic review of evidence,” Surgeon, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 221–226, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Donald, D. Sunjaya, T. Donahue, and O. Joe Hines, “Polyp on ultrasound: now what? the association between gallbladder polyps and cancer,” The American Surgeon, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 1005–1008, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Maydeo and V. Dhir, “The gallbladder polyp conundrum: a riddler on the wall,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 494–495, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Å. Andrén-Sandberg and Y. Deng, “Aspects on gallbladder cancer in 2014,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 326–331, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Basu, M. K. Singh, T. B. Singh, S. K. Bhartiya, S. P. Singh, and V. K. Shukla, “Heavy and trace metals in carcinoma of the gallbladder,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2641–2646, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. S. Lim, C. C. Peters, A. Kow, and C. H. Tan, “The varying faces of gall bladder carcinoma: pictorial essay,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 494–500, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Yoshimitsu, Y. Nishihara, D. Okamoto et al., “Magnetic resonance differentiation between T2 and T1 gallbladder carcinoma: significance of subserosal enhancement on the delayed phase dynamic study,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 854–859, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Wakai, Y. Shirai, J. Sakata, M. Nagahashi, Y. Ajioka, and K. Hatakeyama, “Mode of hepatic spread from gallbladder carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 42 hepatectomized specimens,” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. K. Maurya, M. Tewari, R. R. Mishra, and H. S. Shukla, “Genetic aberrations in gallbladder cancer,” Surgical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Roa, X. de Aretxabala, J. C. Araya, and J. Roa, “Preneoplastic lesions in gallbladder cancer,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 615–623, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. R. Hughes and P. S. Bhathal, “Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder: an immunohistochemical profile and comparison with cholangiocarcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 212–217, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. D. Goldin and J. C. Roa, “Gallbladder cancer: a morphological and molecular update,” Histopathology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 218–229, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Solaini, A. Sharma, J. Watt, S. Iosifidou, J.-A. Chin Aleong, and H. M. Kocher, “Predictive factors for incidental gallbladder dysplasia and carcinoma,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 17–21, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Kanthan, J.-L. Senger, and S. C. Kanthan, “Molecular events in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma: a review,” Pathology Research International, vol. 2012, Article ID 597497, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Kuroki, Y. Tajima, K. Matsuo, and T. Kanematsu, “Genetic alterations in gallbladder carcinoma,” Surgery Today, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Li, Z. Zhang, X. Li et al., “Whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing of gallbladder carcinoma identifies recurrent mutations in the ErbB pathway,” Nature Genetics, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 872–876, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Kumari, V. K. Kapoor, N. Krishnani, K. Kumar, and D. K. Baitha, “Role of c-erbB2 expression in gallbladder cancer,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S.-N. Wang, S.-C. Chung, K.-B. Tsai et al., “Aberrant p53 expression and the development of gallbladder carcinoma and adenoma,” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 53–59, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H.-B. Ma, H.-T. Hu, Z.-L. Di et al., “Association of cyclin D1, p16 and retinoblastoma protein expressions with prognosis and metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 744–747, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Z. Yang, Z. Yang, L. Xiong et al., “Expression of VHL and HIF-1α and their clinicopathologic significance in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder,” Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 534–539, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Yi, Z.-L. Yang, X. Miao et al., “N-cadherin and P-cadherin are biomarkers for invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis of gallbladder carcinomas,” Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 210, no. 6, pp. 363–368, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Ghosh, H. Kamma, T. Kawamoto et al., “MUC1 core protein as a marker of gallbladder malignancy,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 891–896, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Letelier, P. Garcia, P. Leal et al., “Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor a in advanced gallbladder carcinoma,” Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 530–536, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Tewari, A. Agarwal, R. R. Mishra, R. N. Meena, and H. S. Shukla, “Epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis of gallbladder,” Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 356–361, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. G. House, I. I. Wistuba, P. Argani et al., “Progression of gene hypermethylation in gallstone disease leading to gallbladder cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 882–889, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. P. Moy, M. Shahid, C. R. Ferrone et al., “Microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 466, pp. 393–402, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Wu, M. Liao, B. Liu, and Z. Deng, “ADAM-17 over-expression in gallbladder carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis of patients,” Medical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 475–480, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Å. Andrén-Sandberg, “Molecular biology of gallbladder cancer: potential clinical implications,” North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 435–441, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Q. Zou, L. Xiong, Z. Yang, F. Lv, L. Yang, and X. Miao, “Expression levels of HMGA2 and CD9 and its clinicopathological significances in the benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 10, article 92, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. E. Nevin, T. H. Moran, S. Kay, and R. King, “Carcinoma of gallbladder,” Cancer, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 141–148, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. H. Onoyama, M. Yamamoto, A. Tseng, T. Ajiki, and Y. Saitoh, “Extended cholecystectomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 758–763, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. AJCC, “Gallbladder,” in AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, S. B. Edge, D. R. Byrd, C. C. Compton et al., Eds., pp. 211–217, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 7th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  47. K. Jin, H. Lan, T. Zhu, K. He, and L. Teng, “Gallbladder carcinoma incidentally encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: how to deal with it,” Clinical and Translational Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. R. Grobmyer, M. D. Lieberman, and J. M. Daly, “Gallbladder cancer in the twentieth century: single institution’s experience,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 47–49, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Inui, J. Yoshino, and H. Miyoshi, “Diagnosis of gallbladder tumors,” Internal Medicine, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1133–1136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W.-B. Choi, S.-K. Lee, M.-H. Kim et al., “A new strategy to predict the neoplastic polyps of the gallbladder based on a scoring system using EUS,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 372–379, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J.-H. Choi, D.-W. Seo, J. H. Choi et al., “Utility of contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS in the diagnosis of malignant gallbladder polyps (with videos),” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 484–493, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. C. Mayo, A. D. Shore, H. Nathan et al., “National trends in the management and survival of surgically managed gallbladder adenocarcinoma over 15 years: a population-based analysis,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1578–1591, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. D. Deshmukh, P. T. Johnson, S. Sheth, R. Hruban, and E. K. Fishman, “CT of gallbladder cancer and its mimics: a pattern-based approach,” Abdominal Imaging, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 527–536, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, E. S. Lee, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Preoperative staging of gallbladder carcinoma using biliary MR imaging,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 314–321, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. N. K. Lee, S. Kim, T. U. Kim, D. U. Kim, H. I. Seo, and T. Y. Jeon, “Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of benign from malignant lesions in the gallbladder,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. e78–e85, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. S. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Yoon, J. K. Han, and B. I. Choi, “Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 127–137, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Q. Ke, Z. L. He, X. Duan, and S. S. Zheng, “Chronic cholecystitis with hilar bile duct stricture mimicking gallbladder carcinoma on positron emission tomography: a case report,” Molecular and Clinical Oncology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 517–520, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. R. Yadav, D. Jain, S. R. Mathur, A. Sharma, and V. K. Iyer, “Gallbladder carcinoma: an attempt of WHO histological classification on fine needle aspiration material,” CytoJournal, vol. 10, article 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M.-J. Kim, K. W. Kim, H.-C. Kim et al., “Unusual malignant tumors of the gallbladder,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 473–480, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. H. Giang, T. T. B. Ngoc, and L. A. Hassell, “Carcinoma involving the gallbladder: a retrospective review of 23 cases—pitfalls in diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma,” Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 7, article 10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Kijima, Y. Wu, T. Yosizawa et al., “Pathological characteristics of early to advanced gallbladder carcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,” Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 453–458, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Albores-Saavedra, M. Tuck, B. K. McLaren, K. S. Carrick, and D. E. Henson, “Papillary carcinomas of the gallbladder: analysis of noninvasive and invasive types,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 129, no. 7, pp. 905–909, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. Dursun, O. T. Escalona, J. C. Roa et al., “Mucinous carcinomas of the gallbladder. Clinicopathologic analysis of 15 cases identified in 606 carcinomas,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 136, no. 11, pp. 1347–1358, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. C. Roa, O. Tapia, A. Cakir et al., “Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas,” Modern Pathology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1069–1078, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Oohashi, Y. Shirai, T. Wakai, S. Nagakura, H. Watanabe, and K. Hatakeyama, “Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder warrants resection only if curative resection is feasible,” Cancer, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 3000–3005, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Albores-Saavedra, D. E. Henson, D. Moran-Portela, and S. Lino-Silva, “Cribriform carcinoma of the gallbladder: a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1694–1698, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Ellouze, C. Slim, G. Ahmad et al., “Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 9, article 103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Bittinger, I. Altekruger, P. Barth, and L. A. Murakata, “Clear cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. A histological and immunohistochemical study,” Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 191, no. 12, pp. 1259–1266, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. Eken, M. G. Balci, S. Buyukakincak, A. Isik, D. Firat, and O. Cimen, “Rare tumors of the gallbladder: clear cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, vol. 9, pp. 65–68, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. A. Manouras, M. Genetzakis, E. E. Lagoudianakis et al., “Undifferentiated giant cell type carcinoma of the gallbladder with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation: a case report and review of the literature,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 3, article 6496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. B. Badmos, L. Salah Seada, F. Fahad Al Rashid, and H. A. Oreiby, “Undifferentiated spindle-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: a report of a case, an immunohistochemistry profile, and a review of the literature,” Case Reports in Pathology, vol. 2013, Article ID 267194, 3 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. E. A. Husain, R. J. Prescott, S. A. Haider et al., “Gallbladder sarcoma: a clinicopathological study of seven cases from the UK and Austria with emphasis on morphological subtypes,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 395–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Hur, E.-H. Jeong et al., “Carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder: report of two cases,” Surgery Today, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 670–675, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. M. Eltawil, B. I. Gustafsson, M. Kidd, and I. M. Modlin, “Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: an evaluation and reassessment of management strategy,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 687–695, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Iype, T. A. Mirza, D. J. Propper, S. Bhattacharya, R. M. Feakins, and H. M. Kocher, “Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder: three cases and a review of the literature,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 85, no. 1002, pp. 213–218, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. V. Anjaneyulu, G. Shankar-Swarnalatha, and S. C.-S. Rao, “Carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y.-P. Zou, W.-M. Li, H.-R. Liu, and N. Li, “Primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: a case report and brief review of the literature,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 8, article 12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Albores-Saavedra, K. Batich, S. Hossain, D. E. Henson, and A. M. Schwartz, “Carcinoid tumors and small-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: a comparative study based on 221 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 378–383, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D.-M. Kim, S.-O. Yang, H. Y. Han, K. S. Kim, and H. J. Son, “Small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging features—a case report,” Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 213–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. O. Uribe-Uribe, A. M. Jimenez-Garduño, D. E. Henson, and J. Albores-Saavedra, “Paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy associated with small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 124–126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Mahipal and S. Gupta, “Small-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case and literature review,” Case Reports in GI Oncology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 135–136, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  82. H. Taniguchi, J. Sakagami, N. Suzuki et al., “Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder clinically mimicking squamous cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 167–170, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Sakata, Y. Shirai, T. Wakai, Y. Ajioka, and K. Hatakeyama, “Number of positive lymph nodes independently determines the prognosis after resection in patients with gallbladder carcinoma,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1831–1840, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Pilgrim, V. Usatoff, and P. M. Evans, “A review of the surgical strategies for the management of gallbladder carcinoma based on T stage and growth type of the tumour,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 903–907, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. Fuks, J.-M. Regimbeau, P. Pessaux et al., “Is port-site resection necessary in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer?” Journal of Visceral Surgery, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 277–284, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. X. Yi, X. Long, H. Zai, D. Xiao, W. Li, and Y. Li, “Unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma discovered during or after cholecystectomy: focus on appropriate radical re-resection according to the T-stage,” Clinical and Translational Oncology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 652–658, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. Hu, B. Wang, X. Liu, and Y. Lv, “Unsuspected gallbladder cancer: a clinical retrospective study,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 631–635, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. D'Hondt, R. Lapointe, Z. Benamira et al., “Carcinoma of the gallbladder: patterns of presentation, prognostic factors and survival rate. An 11-year single centre experience,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 548–553, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. C. Roa, O. Tapia, C. Manterola et al., “Early gallbladder carcinoma has a favorable outcome but Rokitansky-Aschoff sinus involvement is an adverse prognostic factor,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 463, pp. 651–661, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  90. D. M. Hari, J. H. Howard, A. M. Leung, C. G. Chui, M.-S. Sim, and A. J. Bilchik, “A 21-year analysis of stage I gallbladder carcinoma: is cholecystectomy alone adequate?” HPB, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. D. You, H. G. Lee, K. Y. Paik, J. S. Heo, S. H. Choi, and D. W. Choi, “What is an adequate extent of resection for T1 gallbladder cancers?” Annals of Surgery, vol. 247, no. 5, pp. 835–838, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Y. Murakami, K. Uemura, T. Sudo et al., “Prognostic factors of patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma following aggressive surgical resection,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1007–1016, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. H. Nishio, M. Nagino, T. Ebata, Y. Yokoyama, T. Igami, and Y. Nimura, “Aggressive surgery for stage IV gallbladder carcinoma; what are the contraindications?” Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 351–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. Takada, H. Amano, H. Yasuda et al., “Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? A phase III multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 1685–1695, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. M. Horgan, E. Amir, T. Walter, and J. J. Knox, “Adjuvant therapy in the treatment of biliary tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1934–1940, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. J. Wang, A. Lemieux, J. Kalpathy-Cramer et al., “Nomogram for predicting the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resected gallbladder cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 35, pp. 4627–4632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. F. Eckel, T. Brunner, and S. Jelic, “Biliary cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, supplement 6, pp. vi40–vi44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Capecitabine or Observation after Surgery in Treating Patients with Biliary Tract Cancer, 2015, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00363584.
  99. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Oxaliplatin or Observation in Treating Patients With Biliary Tract Cancer That Has Been Removed by Surgery, 2015, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01313377?term=NCT01313377&rank=1.
  100. Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Compared to Observation After Curative Intent Resection of Biliary Tract Cancer (ACTICCA-1), 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02170090?term=ACTICCA&rank=1.
  101. M. A. Ben-David, K. A. Griffith, E. Abu-Isa et al., “External-beam radiotherapy for localized extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 772–779, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. L. Foo, L. L. Gunderson, C. E. Bender, and S. J. Buskirk, “External radiation therapy and transcatheter iridium in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 929–935, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. R. Sasson, J. P. Hoffman, E. Ross et al., “Trimodality therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer,” American Surgeon, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 277–283, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), “NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology,” 2014, http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp.
  105. A. Sharma, A. D. Dwary, B. K. Mohanti et al., “Best supportive care compared with chemotherapy for unresectable gall bladder cancer: a randomized controlled study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 30, pp. 4581–4586, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. D. C. Doval, J. S. Sekhon, S. K. Gupta et al., “A phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in chemotherapy-naive, unresectable gall bladder cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 1516–1520, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. O. Gallardo, B. Rubio, M. Fodor et al., “A phase II study of gemcitabine in gallbladder carcinoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1403–1406, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Reyes-Vidal, J. Gallardo, E. Yáñez et al., “Gemcitabine: gemcitabine and cisplatin in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder cancer: results of the phase II GOCCHI study 2000-13,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, abstract 1095, p. 273, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  109. F. Eckel and R. M. Schmid, “Chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a pooled analysis of clinical trials,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 896–902, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Kajanti and S. Pyrhönen, “Epirubicin-sequential methotrexate-5-fluorouracil-leucovorin treatment in advanced cancer of the extrahepatic biliary system. A phase II study,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, article 223, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  111. J. H. Harvey, F. P. Smith, and P. S. Schein, “5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and doxorubicin (FAM) in carcinoma of the biliary tract,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1245–1248, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. Falkson, J. M. MacIntyre, and C. G. Moertel, “Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group experience with chemotherapy for inoperable gallbladder and bile duct cancer,” Cancer, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 965–969, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. R. Alberts, H. Al-Khatib, M. R. Mahoney et al., “Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a north central cancer treatment group phase II trial,” Cancer, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. M. Ducreux, P. Rougier, A. Fandi et al., “Effective treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma using 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion with cisplatin,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 653–656, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J.-S. Chen, Y.-Y. Jan, Y.-C. Lin, H.-M. Wang, W.-C. Chang, and C.-T. Liau, “Weekly 24 h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with biliary tract carcinomas,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 393–397, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. P. A. Ellis, A. Norman, A. Hill et al., “Epirubicin, cisplatin and infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (ECF) in hepatobiliary tumours,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1594–1598, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. Y. Cho, Y. H. Paik, Y. S. Chang et al., “Capecitabine combined with gemcitabine (CapGem) as first-line treatment in patients with advanced/metastatic biliary tract carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2753–2758, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. J. J. Knox, D. Hedley, A. Oza et al., “Combining gemcitabine and capecitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer: a phase II trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 2332–2338, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. Y. Z. Patt, M. M. Hassan, A. Aguayo et al., “Oral capecitabine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 578–586, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. O. Nehls, H. Oettle, J. T. Hartmann et al., “Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary system adenocarcinoma: a prospective multicentre phase II trial,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 309–315, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. T. W. Kim, H. M. Chang, H. J. Kang et al., “Phase II study of capecitabine plus cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1115–1120, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. M. Penz, G. V. Kornek, M. Raderer et al., “Phase II trial of two-weekly gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 183–186, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A. D. Wagner, P. Buechner-Steudel, M. Moehler et al., “Gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and 5-FU in advanced bile duct and gallbladder carcinoma: two parallel, multicentre phase-II trials,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 1846–1852, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. B. Mehrotra, S. Ahmed, and A. Bhargava, “Efficacy of gemcitabine in advanced unresectable biliary tract cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 14, supplement, abstract 4259, p. 376, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  125. N. Tsavaris, C. Kosmas, P. Gouveris et al., “Weekly gemcitabine for the treatment of biliary tract and gallbladder cancer,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 193–198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. J. W. Valle, H. S. Wasan, D. H. Palmer et al., “Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 14, pp. 1273–1281, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. E. Suzuki, J. Furuse, M. Ikeda et al., “Treatment efficacy/safety and prognostic factors in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer receiving gemcitabine monotherapy: an analysis of 100 cases,” Oncology, vol. 79, no. 1-2, pp. 39–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. J. A. Meyerhardt, A. X. Zhu, K. Stuart et al., “Phase-II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with metastatic biliary and gallbladder cancer,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 564–570, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. S. Thongprasert, S. Napapan, C. Charoentum, and S. Moonprakan, “Phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in inoperable biliary tract carcinoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 279–281, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. G.-W. Lee, J. H. Kang, H.-G. Kim, J.-S. Lee, J.-S. Lee, and J.-S. Jang, “Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin as first-line treatment for immunohistochemically proven cholangiocarcinoma,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 127–131, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. T. Kim, J. O. Park, J. Lee et al., “A Phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced biliary tract cancer,” Cancer, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1339–1346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. Harder, B. Riecken, O. Kummer et al., “Outpatient chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with biliary tract cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 848–852, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. T. André, C. Tournigand, O. Rosmorduc et al., “Gemcitabine combined with oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma: a GERCOR study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1339–1343, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. N. Gebbia, F. Verderame, R. Di Leo et al., “A phase II study of oxaliplatin (O) and gemcitabine (G) first line chemotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancers,” Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, p. 4132, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  135. R. P. Riechelmann, C. A. Townsley, S. N. Chin, G. R. Pond, and J. J. Knox, “Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1307–1312, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. R. V. Iyer, J. Gibbs, B. Kuvshinoff et al., “A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 3202–3209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. P. K. Julka, T. Puri, and G. K. Rath, “A phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma,” Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 110–114, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. D. V. Jones Jr., R. Lozano, A. Hoque, A. Markowitz, and Y. Z. Patt, “Phase II study of paclitaxel therapy for unresectable biliary tree carcinomas,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 2306–2310, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. S. R. Alberts, J. R. Sande, N. R. Foster et al., “Pemetrexed and gemcitabine for biliary tract and gallbladder carcinomas: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) phase I and II Trial, N9943,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, vol. 38, no. 2–4, pp. 87–94, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. P. Papakostas, C. Kouroussis, N. Androulakis et al., “First-line chemotherapy with docetaxel for unresectable or metastatic carcinoma of the biliary tract. A multicentre phase II study,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 1833–1838, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. P. M. Sanz-Altamira, E. O'Reilly, K. E. Stuart et al., “A phase II trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) for unresectable biliary tree carcinoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 501–504, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. A. Sancho, G. Lopez-Vivanco, I. D. de Concuera et al., “Oxaliplatin and capecitabine after gemcitabine failure in patients with advanced, pancreatic, biliary, and gallbladder adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 15, p. 665s, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  143. B. G. Müller, X. De Aretxabala, and M. G. Domingo, “A review of recent data in the treatment of gallbladder cancer: what we know, what we do, and what should be done,” in American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, vol. 34, pp. e165–e170, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Va, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  144. A. F. Hezel, V. Deshpande, and A. X. Zhu, “Genetics of biliary tract cancers and emerging targeted therapies,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3531–3540, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. A. B. El-Khoueiry, C. J. Rankin, E. Ben-Josef et al., “SWOG 0514: a phase II study of sorafenib in patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1646–1651, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. J. H. Yi, S. Thongprasert, J. Lee et al., “A phase II study of sunitinib as a second-line treatment in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a multicentre, multinational study,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. R. K. Ramanathan, C. P. Belani, D. A. Singh et al., “A phase II study of lapatinib in patients with advanced biliary tree and hepatocellular cancer,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 777–783, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. J. Peck, L. Wei, M. Zalupski, B. O'Neil, M. Villalona Calero, and T. Bekaii-Saab, “HER2/neu may not be an interesting target in biliary cancers: results of an early phase II Study with Lapatinib,” Oncology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 175–179, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. M. R. Costello, N. J. Meropol, C. S. Denlinger et al., “A phase II trial of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in patients with recurrent or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the bile duct or gallbladder (NCI #6135),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, supplement, abstract e15605, 2009, ASCO Annual Meeting. View at Google Scholar
  150. T. Bekaii-Saab, M. A. Phelps, X. Li et al., “Multi-institutional phase II study of selumetinib in patients with metastatic biliary cancers,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 2357–2363, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. S. J. Lubner, M. R. Mahoney, J. L. Kolesar et al., “Report of a multicenter phase II trial testing a combination of biweekly bevacizumab and daily erlotinib in patients with unresectable biliary cancer: a phase II consortium study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3491–3497, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. K. S. Rohrberg, R. K. Olesen, P. Pfeiffer et al., “Phase II trial of erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 234–242, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. D. Malka, T. Trarbach, L. Fartoux et al., “A multicenter, randomized phase II trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) alone or in combination with biweekly cetuximab in the first-line treatment of advanced biliary cancer: interim analysis of the BINGO trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 15, supplement, abstract 4520, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  154. B. Gruenberger, J. Schueller, U. Heubrandtner et al., “Cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin in patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer: a phase 2 study,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1142–1148, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. L. T. Chen, J. S. Chen, Y. Chao et al., “KRAS mutation status-stratified randomized phase II trial of GEMOX with and without cetuximab in advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC): the TCOG T1210 trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, supplement, abstract 4018, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  156. A. X. Zhu, J. A. Meyerhardt, L. S. Blaszkowsky et al., “Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced biliary-tract cancer and correlation of changes in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET with clinical outcome: a phase 2 study,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 48–54, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. A. J. Ocean, P. Christos, J. A. Sparano et al., “Phase II trial of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehydethiosemicarbazone plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 379–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. K. Schuette, E. Kettner, S. Al-Batran et al., “Preliminary results of a multicenter phase II study of imatinib and fluorourcail/leucovorin (FU/LV) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder or biliary tract cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, supplement, abstract e15622, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  159. J. Lee, S. H. Park, H.-M. Chang et al., “Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 181–188, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. S. Misra, A. Chaturvedi, N. C. Misra, and I. D. Sharma, “Carcinoma of the gallbladder,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 167–176, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. L. M. Mazer, H. F. Losada, R. M. Chaudhry et al., “Tumour characteristics and survival analysis of incidental versus suspected gallbladder carcinoma,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1311–1317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. K.-I. Okada, H. Kijima, T. Imaizumi et al., “Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 685–692, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. G. Zhai, K. Yan, X. Ji et al., “LAPTM4B Allele *2 Is a Marker of Poor Prognosis for Gallbladder Carcinoma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e45290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. M. G. McNamara, C. Metran-Nascente, and J. J. Knox, “State-of-the-art in the management of locally advanced and metastatic gallbladder cancer,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 425–431, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. R. Kanthan, J. M. Radhi, and S. C. Kanthan, “Gallbladder carcinomas: an immunoprognostic evaluation of P53, Bcl-2, CEA and alpha-fetoprotein,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 181–184, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. S.-Y. Choi, Y. S. Jo, S.-M. Huang et al., “L1 cell adhesion molecule as a novel independent poor prognostic factor in gallbladder carcinoma,” Human Pathology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1476–1483, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. Y. Zhang, Y. Huang, and M. Qin, “Tumour-infiltrating FoxP3+ and IL-17-producing T cells affect the progression and prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma after surgery,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 516–522, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. S. Prince, A. Zeidman, Y. Dekel, E. Ram, and R. Koren, “Expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in gallbladder carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic variables,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 424–429, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. J. Li, Z.-L. Yang, X. Ren et al., “ACE2 and FZD1 are prognosis markers in squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of gallbladder,” Journal of Molecular Histology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 47–57, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus