Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2019, Article ID 2740923, 27 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2740923
Review Article

Nanovectors Design for Theranostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

1First Surgical Clinic Section, Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Nicolò Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua, Italy
2Nano-Inspired Biomedicine Laboratory, Institute of Paediatric Research- Città della Speranza, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padua, Italy
3Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 5, 35131 Padua, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Marco Agostini; ti.dpinu@initsoga.m

Received 8 July 2019; Accepted 5 September 2019; Published 1 October 2019

Guest Editor: Marco Cordani

Copyright © 2019 Riccardo Rampado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. J. Kuipers, W. M. Grady et al., “Colorectal cancer,” Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 1, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. R. Fearon and B. Vogelstein, “A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis,” Cell, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 759–767, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Muleris, O. Delattre, S. Olschwang et al., “Cytogenetic and molecular approaches of polyploidization in colorectal adenocarcinomas,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 107–118, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Cybulska, T. Olesinski, K. Goryca et al., “Challenges in stratifying the molecular variability of patient-derived colon tumor xenografts,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2018, Article ID 2954208, 9 pages, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Boyle and B. Levin, World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2008.
  6. T. Abbas, M. A. Keaton, and A. Dutta, “Genoic instability in cancer,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, vol. 5, p. 3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. B. Hao, M.-H. Lü, Y.-H. Fan, Y.-L. Cao, Z.-R. Zhang, and S.-M. Yang, “Macrophages in tumor microenvironments and the progression of tumors,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2012, Article ID 948098, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Reuter, S. C. Gupta, M. M. Chaturvedi, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1603–1616, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Bollrath and F. R. Greten, “IKK/NF-κB and STAT3 pathways: central signalling hubs in inflammation-mediated tumour promotion and metastasis,” EMBO Reports, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1314–1319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. E. Visvader and G. J. Lindeman, “Cancer stem cells in solid tumours: accumulating evidence and unresolved questions,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 755–768, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Y. Lin, J.-F. Li, L. Gnatovskiy et al., “Macrophages regulate the angiogenic switch in a mouse model of breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 23, pp. 11238–11246, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Wu, “Cancer related inflammation and tumor angiogenesis (Chapter 9),” in Tumor Angiogenesis, S. Ran, Ed., InTech, London, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Crotti, M. Piccoli, F. Rizzolio, A. Giordano, D. Nitti, and M. Agostini, “Extracellular matrix and colorectal cancer: how surrounding microenvironment affects cancer cell behavior?” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 232, no. 5, pp. 967–975, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Crotti, E. D’Angelo, C. Bedin et al., “Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine and serotonin pathways reveals substantial differences in colon and rectal cancer,” Metabolomics, vol. 13, no. 12, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. H. Schreuders, A. Ruco, L. Rabeneck et al., “Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes,” Gut, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 1637–1649, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K.-i. Fujita, Y. Kubota, H. Ishida, and Y. Sasaki, “Irinotecan, a key chemotherapeutic drug for metastatic colorectal cancer,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 43, pp. 12234–12248, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. M. Wilhelm, J. Dumas, L. Adnane et al., “Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506): a new oral multikinase inhibitor of angiogenic, stromal and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases with potent preclinical antitumor activity,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 245–255, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Bedin, S. Crotti, E. Tasciotti, and M. Agostini, “Diagnostic devices for circulating biomarkers detection and quantification,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 34, pp. 4304–4327, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Lee Ventola, “Progress in nanomedicine: approved and investigational nanodrugs,” P & T, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 742–755, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Ferrari, “Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Washington, DC, USA, 2019, NSCT/NSET, National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology and Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology, National Nanotechnology Initiative: the Initiative and Its Implementation Plan, NSCT/NSET.
  22. H. Maeda, J. Wu, T. Sawa, Y. Matsumura, and K. Hori, “Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 271–284, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E.-K. Lim, B. H. Chung, and S. J. Chung, “Recent advances in pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles for smart drug delivery in cancer therapy,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 300–317, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Sánchez-Moreno, J. de Vicente, S. Nardecchia, J. Marchal, and H. Boulaiz, “Thermo-sensitive nanomaterials: recent advance in synthesis and biomedical applications,” Nanomaterials, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 935, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. X. Guo, Y. Cheng, X. Zhao, Y. Luo, J. Chen, and W. E. Yuan, “Advances in redox-responsive drug delivery systems of tumor microenvironment,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 74, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. I. Pereira, F. Sousa, P. Kennedy, and B. Sarmento, “Carcinoembrionic antigen-targeted nanioparticles potentiate the delivery of anticancer drugs to colorectal cancer cells,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 549, no. 1-2, pp. 397–403, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. A. Cisterna, N. Kamaly, W. I. Choi, A. Tavakkoli, O. C. Farokhzad, and C. Vilos, “Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer,” Nanomedicine, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 2443–2456, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Song, J. Petschauer, A. Madden, and W. Zamboni, “Nanoparticles and the mononuclear phagocyte system: pharmacokinetics and applications for inflammatory diseases,” Current Rheumatology Reviews, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 22–34, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Bertrand, P. Grenier, M. Mahmoudi, E. M. Lima, E. A. Appel et al., “Mechanistic understanding of in vivo protein corona formation on polymeric nanoparticles and impact on pharmacokinetics,” Nature Communications, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 777, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. S. Suk, Q. Xu, N. Kim, J. Hanes, and L. M. Ensign, “PEGylation as a strategy for improving nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 99, pp. 28–51, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Kandasamy and D. Maity, “Recent advances in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for in vitro and in vivo cancer nanotheranostics,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 496, no. 2, pp. 191–218, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y.-C. Yeh, B. Creran, and V. M. Rotello, “Gold nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications in bionanotechnology,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1871–1880, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Saji and T. Ashutosh, “Functionalized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, properties and applications—a review,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1869–1894, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C.-S. Lee, H. Kim, J. Yu et al., “Doxorubicin-loaded oligonucleotide conjugated gold nanoparticles: a promising in vivo drug delivery system for colorectal cancer therapy,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 142, pp. 416–423, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. F. Hainfeld and D. N. Slatkin, “The use of gold nanoparticles to enhance radiotherapy in mice,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 49, no. 18, pp. N309–N315, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Zhao, J. Pan, W. Li, W. Yang, L. Qin, and Y. Pan, “Gold nanoparticles enhance cisplatin delivery and potentiate chemotherapy by decompressing colorectal cancer vessels,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 13, pp. 6207–6221, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Z. Liu, L. Xiong, G. Ouyang et al., “Investigation of copper cysteamine nanoparticles as a new type of radiosensitiers for colorectal carcinoma treatment,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 9290, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Freitas de Freitas, G. H. C. Varca, J. G. Dos Santos Batista, and A. Benévolo Lugão, “An overview of the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using radiation technologies,” Nanomaterials, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 939, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Kamil and D. Nazih, “Chemistry routes for copolymer synthesis containing PEG for targeting, imaging, and drug delivery purposes,” Pharmaceutics, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 327, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. W. Zhuqing, W. Shasha, J. Wang, A. Yu, and G. Wei, “Carbon nanofiber-based functional nanomaterials for sensor applications,” Nanomaterials, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 1045, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. S. Kralj, T. Potrc, P. Kocbek, S. Marchesan, and D. Makovec, “Design and fabrication of magnetically responsive nanocarriers for drug delivery,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 454–469, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Rentsch, T. Schiergens, A. Khandoga, and J. Werner, “Surgery for colorectal cancer-trends, developments, and future perspectives,” Visceral Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 184–191, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. P. Tiernan, N. Ingram, G. Marston et al., “CEA-targeted nanoparticles allow specific in vivo fluorescent imaging of colorectal cancer models,” Nanomedicine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1223–1231, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N.-T. Chen, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng et al., “Lectin-functionalzied mesoporous silica nanoparticles for endoscopic detection of premalignant colonic lesions,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1941–1952, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Kolitz-Domb, I. Grinberg, E. Corem-Salkmon, and S. Margel, “Engineering of near infrared fluorescent proteinoid-poly(L-lactic acid) particles for in vivo colon cancer detection,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 30, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. Kogan-Zviagin, Y. Shamay, A. Nissan, O. Sella-Tavor, M. Golan, and A. David, “Intra-colonic administration of a polymer-bound NIRF probe for improved colorectal cancer detection during colonoscopy,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 192, pp. 182–191, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Song et al., “An endoscope with integrated transparent bioelectronics and theranostic nanoparticles for colon cancer treatment,” Nature Communications, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID 10059, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. I. Kim, S. Jeong, K. O. Jung et al., “Simultaneous detection of EGFR and VEGF in colorectal cancer using fluorescence-Raman endoscopy,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 1035, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Resch, “Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: old controversies and recent advances,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 46, pp. 8515–8526, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Wang, H. Deng, H. Chen et al., “Preoperative submucosal injection of carbon nanoparticles improves lymph node staging accuracy in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 221, no. 5, pp. 923–930, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Rychahou, F. Haque, Y. Shu et al., “Delivery of RNA nanoparticles into colorectal cancer metastases following systemic administration,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1108–1116, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Bhattacharyya, X.-R. Ren, R. A. Mook Jr et al., “Nicosamide-conjugated polypeptide nanoparticles inhibit Wnt signalling and colon cancer growth,” Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 34, pp. 12709–12717, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Li, Y. Duo, S. Bao et al., “EpCAM aptamer-functionalized polydopamine-coated moseoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with DMI for targeted tharapy in colorectal cancer,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 12, pp. 6239–6257, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Biabankhankhadani, N. B. M. Alitheen, K. L. Ho, and W. S. Tan, “pH-responsive virus-like nanoparticles with enhanced tmour-targeting ligands for cancer drug delivery,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID 37891, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Li, Z. Tang, D. Zhang et al., “Doxorubicin-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles suppress the growth of murine colorectal carcinoma and inhibit the metastasis of murine mammary carcinoma in rodent models,” Biomaterials, vol. 51, pp. 161–172, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. Zhang, H. Qian, M. Yang et al., “Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 12, pp. 1593–1605, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Z. Zang, H. Qian, J. Huang et al., “Anti-EGFR-iRGD recombinant protein modified biomimetic nanoparticles loaded with gambogic acid to enhance targeting and antitumour ability in colorectal cancer treatment,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 13, pp. 4961–4975, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. B. Moharil, A. Dive, S. Khandekar, and A. Bodhade, “Cancer stem cells: an insight,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 463, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. T. Ning, S. Lee, M. F. Wei et al., “Targeting colorectal cancer stem-like cells with anti-CD133 antibody-conjugated SN-38 nanoparticles,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 17793–17804, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Zhao, W. Cao, H. Zheng et al., “Acid-responsive nanoparticles as novel oxidative stress-inducing anticancer therapeutics agent for colon cancer,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 14, pp. 1597–1618, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. F. Anderson and H. Cui, “Protease-sensitive nanomaterials for cancer therapeutics and imaging,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 56, no. 20, pp. 5761–5777, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Shi, Y. Hu, A. Lin et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase responsive nanoparticles for synergistic treatment of colorectal cancer via simulataneous anti-angiogenesis and chemotherapy,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2943–2953, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. X. Liu, X. Gao, S. Zheng et al., “Modified nanoparticle mediated IL-12 immunogene therapy for colon cancer,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1993–2004, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Tan, S. Han, S. Ding et al., “Chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery of fused NKG2D-IL-21 gene suppresses colon cancer growth in mice,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 3095–3107, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Li, R. Deng, Y. Su, and C. Yang, “Dual-targeting nanoparticles with excellent gene transfection efficiency for gene therapy of peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancer,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 52, pp. 89837–89847, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Y. Li, Y. Duo, J. Bi et al., “Targeted delivery of anti-miR-155 by functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for colorectal cnacer therapy,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 13, pp. 1241–1256, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. Wang, F. Costanza, C. Li et al., “PEG-Poly(amino acid)s/MicroRNA complex nanoparticles effectively arrest the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1510–1519, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Marquez, I. Fernandez-Piñeiro, M. J. Araúzo-Bravo et al., “Targeting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells with miR-20a-loaded nanoparticles reduces murine colon cancer metastasis to the liver,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 709–719, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Hu, Y. Wang, L. Xu et al., “Relaxin gene delivery mitigates liver metastasis and synergizes with check point therapy,” Nature Communications, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 2993, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. X. Zhang, X. Liang, X. Ma, R. Hou, X. Li, and F. Wang, “Highly stable near-infrared dye conjugated cerasomes for fluorescence imaging-guided synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy of colorectal cancer,” Biomaterials Science, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2873–2888, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. J. Xu, L. Xu, C. Wang et al., “Near-infrared-triggered photodynamic therapy with multitasking upconversion nanoparticles in combination with checkpoint blockade for immunotherapty of colorectal cancer,” ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 4463–4474, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. X. Duan, C. Chan, W. Han, N. Guo, R. R. Weichselbaum, and W. Lin, “Immunostimulatory nanomedicines synergize with checkpoint blockade immunotherapy to eradicate colorectal tumours,” Nature Communications, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 1899, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. Y. Li, Y. Du, T. X. Liang et al., “EGFR-targeted liposomal nanohybrid cerasomes: theranostic function and immune checkpoint inhibition in a mouse model of colorectal cancer,” Nanoscale, vol. 10, no. 35, pp. 16738–16749, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Xu, Y. Wen, Y. Liu et al., “Hollow mesoporous ruthenium nanoparticles conjugated bispecific antibody for targeted anti-colorectal cancer response of combination therapy,” Nanoscale, vol. 11, no. 19, pp. 9661–9678, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. Evangelopoulos, A. Parodi, J. O. Martinez, and E. Tasciotti, “Trends towards biomimicry in theranostics,” Nanomaterials, vol. 8, no. 9, p. 637, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Pasto, F. Giordano, M. Evangelopoulos, A. Amadori, and E. Tasciotti, “Cell membrane protein functionalization of nanoparticles as a new tumor-targeting strategy,” Clinical and Translational Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. D. Golovko, D. Kedrin, O. H. Yilmaz, and J. Roper, “Review: US Spelling Colorectal cancer models for novel drug discovery,” Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1217–1229, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Piccoli, E. D’Angelo, S. Crotti et al., “Decellularized colorectal cancer matrix as bioactive microenvironment for in vitro 3D cancer research,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 233, no. 8, pp. 5937–5948, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Sensi, E. D’Angelo, S. D’Aronco, R. Molinaro, and M. Agostini, “Preclinical three-dimensional colorectal cancer model: the next generation of in vitro drug efficacy evaluation,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 234, no. 1, pp. 181–191, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Yan, F. Xue, H. Chen et al., “A multi-center study of using carbon nanoparticles to track lymph node metastasis in T1-2 colorectal cancer,” Surgical Endoscopy, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 3315–3321, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. X. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Yang et al., “Polydopamine nanoparticles carrying tumor cell lysate as a potential vaccine for colorectal cancer immunotherapy,” Biomaterials Science, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 3062–3075, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. S. B. White, D. H. Kim, Y. Guo et al., “Biofunctionalized hybrid magnetic gold nanoparticles as catalysts for photothermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases,” Radiology, vol. 285, no. 3, pp. 809–819, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus