Different Adipose Depots: Their Role in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Mitochondrial Response to Hypolipidemic Agents
(A) The main white adipose tissues (WATs) are abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, (a)), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). VAT surrounds the inner organs and can be divided in omental (b), mesenteric (c), retroperitoneal ((d): surrounding the kidney), gonadal ((e): attached to the uterus and ovaries in females and epididymis and testis in men), and pericardial (f). The omental depot stars near the stomach and spleen and can expand into the ventral abdomen, while the deeper mesenteric depot is attached in a web-form to the intestine. The gluteofemoral adipose tissue (g) is the SAT located to the lower-body parts and is measured by hip, thigh, and leg circumference. WAT can also be found intramuscularly (h). Brown adipose tissue is found above the clavicle ((i): supraclavicular) and in the subscapular region (j). Although the mentioned subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues are found in humans, depots (d) and (e) are mostly studied in rodents. (B) The adipose tissue depots that have been linked to risk of developing obesity-related diseases are indicated in red. The best-documented link to risk is found for the omental and mesenteric VAT.