Table 2: Initial characteristics of participants.

VariableExerciseControl
# 𝑋 ± S D RangeMdn# 𝑋 ± S D RangeMdn

Age (years)1346.3 ± 8.634–6246.01345.6 ± 8.733–6145
Body weight (kg)1287.5 ± 34.966–9992.391288.2 ± 12.166–10391.3
BMI (kg m2)831.8 ± 3.227–3632.7832.4 ± 3.926–3733.7
V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)728.5 ± 6.220–3629.4728.5 ± 6.321–3829.0
Kilocalories (total)82018 ± 3191488–2616199981950 ± 3531398–26161922
Carbohydrates (%)5 4 9 . 6 ± 1 . 8 48–5349.0549.7 ± 2.847–5448.4
Total fat (%)832.4 ± 3.728–3832832.7 ± 3.727–3832.6
Saturated fat (%)512.6 ± 1.810–1413.6512.4 ± 2.29–1413.6
Cholesterol (mg)5318 ± 61248–4002965280 ± 78197–400284
TC (mg/dL)14212.5 ± 24.7188–271202.214204.3 ± 16.4185–238201.3
HDL-C (mg/dL)1348.8 ± 6.538–5849.01348.0 ± 6.638–5849.9
TC : HDL-C54.8 ± 0.64.1–5.34.954.8 ± 0.54.1–5.24.9
LDL-C (mg/dL)8133.4 ± 17.1115–172127.08131.1 ± 12.9117–156126.5
TG (mg/dL)12103.7 ± 55.033–22484.912102.7 ± 46.233–166102.8

Notes. #, number of groups in which data were available. With the exception of age, data limited to those in which change outcome results could be calculated. Mdn, median; BMI, body mass index; V O 2 m a x , maximum oxygen consumption; mg, milligrams; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC : HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides. To convert TC, HDL-C and LDL-C from mg/dL to mmol, divide by 38.46, to convert TG from mg/dL to mmol, divide by 87.72. Insufficient data (<5) reported for protein, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans-fat intake as well as non-HDL-C.