Table 4: D-A-CH recommendations for supplementation of nutrients in pregnancies [68], tolerable upper intake levels according to EFSA [26] in pregnancy, and further nutritional recommendations in pregnancies after bariatric surgery according to Schultes et al. [25], Kaska et al. [75], Gonzalez et al. [28], Quyang et al. [7], Kushner et al. [62], ACOG [19], and Busetto et al. [5].

NutrientRecommended daily dietary intake during pregnancy (D-A-CH) [68]UL (per day)Pregnancy after bariatric surgery (per day)

Iron30 mg45 mg100–200 mg [25], 40–65 mg [75], 65 mg [7], and 200 mg8 [5]
Calcium1000 mg62500 mg1500 mg [25], 1000–2000 mg [75], 1200–1500 mg [28], 1200 mg [7], and 1000–1200 mg [5]
Vitamin D20 µg = 800 IU4100 µg = 4000 IU4 [82]400 IU [7], 1200–2000 IU [25], 2000–6000 IU [75], 1000 IU [5]
Vitamin A1100 µg equivalent1 from the 4th month3000 µg = 10000 IUNo more than 5000 IU1 [7, 75], 770 µg [28]
Vitamin E13 mg equivalent2,3300 mg, 1000 mg
Vitamin K60 µg120 µg [7]
Vitamin B123.5 µg1000 µg every 3 months i.m. [5, 25], 350 µg orally/day or 1000 µg every month [75], 1000 µg/week i.m. or 350–500  µg/day p.o. [7]
Folic acid550 µg1 mg600–800 µg [19], 400 µg [28], 800 µg [7], 4 mg [75], 400 µg or 5 mg7 [5]
Iodine230 µg600 µg, 1100 µg250 µg [75], 200 µg [28]
Zinc10 mg25 mg, 40 mg11 mg [7], 20–30 mg [25], 15 mg [75]
Magnesium310 mg250 mg5, 350 mg5200–1000 mg [75]

UL = upper limit; IU = international unit. In general, most of vitamins and trace elements mentioned are contained in typically available supplements used in pregnancy (e.g., Femibion, Pregnavit). 11 mg retinol equivalent = 6 mg all-trans-β-carotene = 12 mg other provitamin A carotenoids = 1 mg retinol = 1.15 mg all-trans-retinyl acetate = 1.83 mg all-trans-retinyl palmitate; 1 IU = 0.3 µg retinol. 21 mg RRR-α-tocopherol equivalent = 1 mg RRR-α-tocopherol = 1.49 IU; 1 IE = 0.67 mg RRR-α-tocopherol = 1 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. 31 mg RRR-α-tocopherol (D-α-tocopherol) equivalent = 1.1 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-tocopheryl acetate) = 2 mg RRR-β-tocopherol (D-β-tocopherol) = 4 mg RRR-γ-tocopherol (D-γ-tocopherol) = 100 mg RRR-δ-tocopherol (D-δ-tocopherol) = 3.3 mg RRR-α-tocotrienol (D-α-tocotrienol) = 1.49 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (D, L-α-tocopheryl acetate). 41 µg vitamin D = 40 IU. 5This UL does not include nutritional intake of magnesium from food or fluids and accounts for supplements only. 61200 mg calcium in women <19 years of age. 75 mg in patients with T2DM or BMI > 30 kg/m2 until 12 weeks of gestation. 82–3 times daily. All NIH recommendations for women >18 years of age; i.m., intramuscular; p.o., per os.