Journal of Obesity / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Clinical Study

Effects of Exercise Domain and Intensity on Sleep in Women and Men with Overweight and Obesity

Table 4

Estimated changes in sleep characteristics of the participants included in the per protocol analyses.

CONBIKEMODVIG
BIKE vs. MOD

BIKE vs. VIG

MOD vs. VIG
nWithin group changenWithin group changeChange vs. CON vs. CONnWithin group changeChange vs. CON vs. CONnWithin group changeChange vs. CON vs. CON

Accelerometry
 Sleep duration (min)
  0–3 months12−22 (−44; −1)20−20 (−37; −3)2 (−24; 29)0.8524−1 (−17; 15)21 (−5; 47)0.11248 (−9; 23)29 (3; 55)0.030.100.020.45
  0–6 months136 (−17; 30)17−3 (−24; 18)−9 (−40; 21)0.5426−7 (−24; 10)−13 (−42; 15)0.3622−2 (−20; 16)−8 (−38; 21)0.570.770.930.69
 Sleep duration variability (%)
  0–3 months1210 (−14; 40)2020 (−1; 45)9 (−19; 45)0.5624−4 (−20; 14)−13 (−34; 16)0.352411 (−7; 32)1 (−24; 35)0.930.080.550.22
  0–6 months1320 (−9; 59)17−6 (−27; 20)−22 (−45; 12)0.1726−17 (−32; 3)−31 (−50; −3)0.0322−14 (−31; 8)−28 (−49; 1)0.060.440.590.82
 Sleep midpoint variability (%)
  0–3 months1210 (−18; 48)2030 (3; 64)18 (−18; 71)0.372415 (−7; 43)5 (−26; 50)0.782416 (−6; 44)5 (−26; 51)0.770.440.460.98
  0–6 months1310 (−17; 46)176 (−17; 35)−4 (−33; 37)0.8226−15 (−30; 5)−23 (−44; 8)0.13220 (−20; 24)−10 (−36; 27)0.560.160.710.28
 Weekday sleep duration (min)
  0–3 months12−27 (−52; −2)20−17 (−36; 3)10 (−21; 41)0.52248 (−10; 26)34 (4; 64)0.03244 (−14; 22)31 (0; 61)0.0470.060.120.76
  0–6 months137 (−21; 34)17−1 (−24; 23)−7 (−43; 28)0.69261 (−18; 21)−5 (−38; 27)0.75227 (−14; 28)1 (−33; 34)0.980.900.620.68
 Weekend sleep duration (min)
  0–3 months12−17 (−60; 26)20−34 (−67; 1)−17 (−69; 36)0.5324−23 (−55; 9)−6 (−57; 45)0.812420 (−11; 52)37 (−14; 88)0.150.630.020.04
  0–6 months136 (−31; 44)17−15 (−48; 18)−21 (−69; 27)0.3826−26 (−53; 2)−32 (−76; 12)0.1622−17 (−47; 13)−23 (−69: 22)0.310.610.930.65
Sleep quality
 PSQI total score (%)
  0–3 months14−15 (−33; 7)181 (−18; 25)19 (−12; 61)0.2530−3 (−17; 15)15 (−13; 51)0.3324−22 (−35; −6)−8 (−31; 23)0.570.760.060.07
  0–6 months168 (−16; 39)187 (−15; 36)−1 (−29; 39)0.9528−7 (−23; 13)−14 (−37; 17)0.3423−16 (−32; 4)−22 (−44; 7)0.120.350.130.47
Sleepiness
 ESS total score
  0–3 months140.9 (−0.4; 2.2)161.1 (−0.1; 2.3)0.2 (−1.6; 2.0)0.8228−0.1 (−1.1; 0.8)−1.0 (−2.6; 0.6)0.20230.9 (−0.1; 2.0)0 (−1.6; 1.7)0.970.110.840.13
  0–6 months150.6 (−0.7; 1.9)17−0.9 (−2.1; 0.3)−1.5 (−3.2; 0.2)0.0827−0.6 (−1.5; 0.3)−1.2 (−2.8; 0.3)0.1223−0.5 (−1.5; 0.6)−1.1 (−2.7; 0.5)0.190.670.570.85

Data are estimated mean changes (95% CI) for parametric data and percentage change (95% CI) for nonparametric data. Changes from baseline to 3 and 6 months were assessed using a mixed model adjusted for gender, age, and baseline variation. The model was baseline constrained, and differences at baseline were thereby ascribed to the individual level. Sleep duration variability and sleep midpoint variability were calculated as the sum of the absolute differences between the mean and each night of measurement divided by the number of nights measured. BIKE, active commuting group; CON, control group; ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; MOD, moderate intensity exercise group; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; VIG, vigorous intensity exercise group.

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