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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2019, Article ID 4608315, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4608315
Research Article

Are Nonnutritive Sweeteners Obesogenic? Associations between Diet, Faecal Microbiota, and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Morbidly Obese Subjects

1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, PB 104, N-2381 Brumunddal, Norway
2Unit for Applied Clinical Research, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Box 8905, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
3Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Box 8905, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
4Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, N-0440 Oslo, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Per G. Farup; on.untn@puraf.rep

Received 10 March 2019; Revised 28 May 2019; Accepted 31 August 2019; Published 1 October 2019

Academic Editor: Aron Weller

Copyright © 2019 Per G. Farup et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity has been associated with changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolites. The study explored changes in the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with the diet (including nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs)) and evaluated metabolic consequences in subjects with morbid obesity. The diet was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. One unit of NNSs was 100 mL beverage with NNSs or 2 tablets/teaspoons of NNSs. The faecal microbiota was assessed with GA-map® dysbiosis test and SCFA with gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection. Fourteen men and 75 women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 8.7) years, BMI 41.8 (SD 3.6) kg/m2, and intake of NNSs 7.5 units/day (SD 3.2; range 0–43) were included. Faecal butyric acid was positively and negatively associated with the intake of starch (partial correlation = 0.264; ) and NNSs (partial correlation = −0.274; ), respectively. NNSs were associated with changes in four out of 39 bacterial groups. Butyric acid has antiobesogenic effects, reduces insulin resistance, and improves dyslipidaemia. Since the weight-reducing effect of NNSs on obese adults trying to lose weight is dubious, it seems imprudent to use NNSs that might counteract the favourable effects of butyric acid.