Journal of Obesity has been accepted into Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA).Go to Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity focuses on topics such as obesity, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and risks associated with obesity.
Journal of Obesity maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Central Obesity and Associated Factors among Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Armed Force Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Similar to the general population, the prevalence of central obesity is increasing among HIV-infected persons. There are little data on the burden of abdominal obesity using the waist-to-hip ratio measurement in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of central obesity among HIV patients taking ART in an armed force comprehensive and specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic sampling method was used to select 353 study participants. Pretested World Health Organization stepwise questionnaire, document review, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were used to collect data on different variables under the study. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 3 and analyzed by SPSS version 21. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was considered to declare a statistically significant association. Results. The prevalence of central obesity in this study was 71.7% (95% CI: 67%–76.4%). Besides, the odds of central obesity were associated with being female (AOR: 85.6; 95% CI: 20.09, 364.6), among merchants (AOR: 18.8; 95% CI: 1.39, 255.7), CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.007, 0.160), among respondents taking AZT + 3TC + EFV-based ART regimen (AOR: 8.73; 95% CI: 1.33, 57.17), ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen (AOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.94), increased BMI (AOR: 3.50; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.89), and abnormal blood pressure (AOR: 2.53; 95%: 1.13, 5.67). Conclusion. It is possible to conclude that central obesity is a huge public health problem among the HIV-infected population in the study area. Being female, increased BMI, low CD4 count, AZT + 3TC + EFV, ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen, and abnormal blood pressure were associated with central obesity. Therefore, adequate attention must be paid to primary and secondary control of these factors to reduce the prevalence of abdominal obesity among HIV-infected patients.
Does Weight-Cycling Influence Illness Beliefs in Obesity? A Gender-Sensitive Approach
Obesity is classified as a chronic disease. Women and men seem to face different obstacles in their attempts to overcome one of the most challenging tasks in the treatment of this disease, namely, weight reduction maintenance. The Common-Sense-Model (CSM) is mainly used to improve the understanding of self-regulation and health behaviour in chronic diseases but has yet to be explored for obesity. This paper applies the CSM to obesity, focussing on the construct of illness representations, which is the basis of health behaviour according to the CSM. A sample of n = 356 women and n = 77 men with obesity was investigated to assess the extent that illness representations in obesity are shaped by experiences of weight-cycling and the extent that gender influences their quality. Our results show that the representations of timeline and consequences as well as the emotional representation are particularly influenced by weight-cycling, especially in men. On average, women showed more maladaptive illness representations than men. These findings not only contribute to a better applicability of the CSM in obesity, but also emphasize the importance of gender in obesity research and interventions.
Associations of Biomarkers of Inflammation and Breast Cancer in the Breast Adipose Tissue of Women with Combined Measures of Adiposity
Background. Mechanisms underlying the obesity-breast cancer link involve inflammation but need to be elucidated. Determining obesity by combining body mass index (BMI) with the waist circumference (WC) may clarify the role of inflammatory and hormonally related markers in breast cancer. We examined the effect of combining adiposity indices (BMI/WC) with the gene expression of several biomarkers involved in breast cancer. Methods. Expression of cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1), estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α), allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and leptin (LEP) in 141 adipose breast tissues was quantified using qPCR method. BMI and WC were measured by a trained nurse and categorized using the median split, BMILOWCLO, BMILOWCHI, BMIHIWCLO, and BMIHIWCHI. Results. Gene expression of IL-6 (3-fold), TNF-α (2-fold), and LEP (2-fold) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of women with high WC regardless of BMI, that is, BMILOWCHI and BMIHIWCHI women (all < 0.01). Compared to BMILOWCLO women, gene expression of CYP19A1, COX2, and AIF1 was increased by two-fold in breast adipose tissue of BMIHIWCHI women ( < 0.10). ER-α was not different across adiposity categories. Conclusions. The expression of some biomarkers, particularly those related to inflammation, is elevated in breast adipose tissue of women with a high WC independent of BMI. Obesity monitoring should also include women with normal or low BMI, but with central adiposity.
Anthropometric Measurements and Correlations to Glucometabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass Surgery
Abdominal obesity is associated with hypertension, increased fasting glucose, HbA1c, and cholesterol. Body mass index (BMI) is frequently used to measure and define obesity and as inclusion criteria for bariatric surgery. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been suggested to predict the amount of visceral fat, metabolic traits, and cardiometabolic risk superior to BMI. The aim was to test whether SAD has stronger correlations to glucometabolic traits compared to BMI. One hundred and fifty-five (108 women, 47 men) morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were evaluated before (baseline), 6 and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). BMI was reduced from 43.7 kg/m2 (baseline) to 31.3 kg/m2 (12 months) and SAD from 32.6 to 23.2 cm (both ). SAD correlated with CRP (), fasting glucose (), HbA1c (), triglycerides (), systolic blood pressure (), and vitamin D (). BMI correlated with CRP (), triglycerides (), vitamin D (), and magnesium (). Despite RYGBP surgery, vitamin D was significantly increased. Liver enzymes were significantly lowered after RYGBP and the change over time in SAD correlated with gamma-glutamyltransferase. SAD was superior to BMI to predict glucose disturbance and dyslipidemia implying increased use of SAD as it is cost effective and simple to perform in the clinic and could be of value when considering patients for bariatric surgery.
Structural Brain Changes Associated with Overweight and Obesity
Obesity is a global health problem with a broad set of comorbidities, such as malnutrition, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, systemic hypertension, heart failure, and kidney failure. This review describes recent findings of neuroimaging and two studies of cell density regarding the roles of overnutrition-induced hypothalamic inflammation in neurodegeneration. These studies provided consistent evidence of smaller cortical thickness or reduction in the gray matter volume in people with overweight and obesity; however, the investigated brain regions varied across the studies. In general, bilateral frontal and temporal areas, basal nuclei, and cerebellum are more commonly involved. Mechanisms of volume reduction are unknown, and neuroinflammation caused by obesity is likely to induce neuronal loss. Adipocytes, macrophages of the adipose tissue, and gut dysbiosis in overweight and obese individuals result in the secretion of the cytokines and chemokines that cross the blood-brain barrier and may stimulate microglia, which in turn also release proinflammatory cytokines. This leads to chronic low-grade neuroinflammation and may be an important factor for apoptotic signaling and neuronal death. Additionally, significant microangiopathy observed in rat models may be another important mechanism of induction of apoptosis. Neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases) may be similar to that in metabolic diseases induced by malnutrition. Poor cognitive performance, mainly in executive functions, in individuals with obesity is also discussed. This review highlights the neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms linked to obesity and emphasizes the importance of developing effective prevention and treatment intervention strategies for overweight and obese individuals.
Adulteration of the Herbal Weight Loss Products by the Illegal Addition of Synthetic Antiobesity Medications: A Pilot Study
Background. Some anorexic agents are used to fraudulent augmentation herbal weight loss formulations. This study was designed to evaluate the potential existence of illicit substances in 63 herbal weight loss formulations collected from local apothecaries in Hamadan, Iran. Methods. The thin-layer chromatography method was applied for the primary screening of potential illicit substances in the samples. The positive samples were analyzed using an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results. The results showed that 26.98% of the samples contained 17.76 ± 6.02 mg/cap of sibutramine. Daily therapeutic dose intake of sibutramine is in the range of 5 to 15 mg daily. Conclusion. Since apothecaries have advised consumers to take at least two capsules a day, it seems that the blood concentration of sibutramine will likely rise beyond the therapeutic concentration and become toxic. Therefore, the usage of such products could pose serious risks to consumers’ health.