Journal of Oral Diseases / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Malocclusion Characteristics as Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Disorders: Lessons Learned from a Meta-Analysis

Table 1

Assessment of retrieved full-text articles for inclusion.

Sample sizeSelection methodsMeasurement methods sufficientMethod error Examiner blinding presentAdequate data for analysisConfounders presentStated definition of TMDInclusion

Fantoni et al., 2010 [9]CC; only womenYCases/controls were only matched in age and genderPossibleYUnlikelyRDC/TMD Axis 1 group 1Y

Landi et al., 2004 [10]CC; only womenYCases/controls were only matched in genderUnlikelyYUnclearRDC/TMD Axis 1 group 1Y

Marinho et al., 2009 [11]CC; M/F adultsYCases/controls were only matched in agePossibleYCases were 3/4 female; controls were 1/2 femaleRDC/TMD Axis 1Y

Marklund and Wänman, 2010 [12]Cohort converted to CC at follow-up; M/F adultsYIntended cohort study later converted to a case/control study; therefore no effort to match cases/controls existedYYNo history of orthodontic treatment was assessed; dropouts were not accounted for2-year persistent jaw muscle (JM) signs OR symptoms; assisted by RDC/TMD Axis 1 group 1a and group 3aY

Mohlin et al., 2004 [13]Cohort converted to CC at follow-up; M/F adultsYIntended cohort study later converted to a case/control study; therefore no effort to match cases/controls with respect to characteristics other than age (all subjects were 19 at follow-up) existedPossibleY“Previous history of orthodontic treatment was assessed,” but it is unsure how this information factored into analysis or sample selection; dropouts were not accounted forCE using a function and muscle checklistY

Selaimen et al., 2007 [14]CC; only womenYCases/controls were only matched in age and genderYYNo history of orthodontic treatment was assessed RDC/TMDY

Costa et al., 2012 [15]CC; M/F adultsYCases/controls were unmatched; TMD diagnosis not clinicalUnlikelyYCases were 88% female and older; controls were 64% female and younger10-item questionnaire related to signs and symptoms of TMD; interview not CEN

Gesch et al., 2004 [16]CS population study; M/F adultsYUnlikely to find serious methodology errorYNNo history of orthodontic treatment was assessedTMD Guidelines of the Academy of Orofacial Pain; ≥2 symptoms needed on CEN

Pahkala and Qvarnström, 2004 [17]Cohort converted to CC at follow-up; M/F adolescentsYTMD definition inadequate; lack of inclusion/exclusion criteria for cases/controls; and unlikely that cases/controls were matched by characteristics other than ageUnlikelyNSignificant dropouts at final follow-up; no history of orthodontic treatment was assessed“TMD signs” = functional, muscle tendernessN

Turasi et al., 2007 [18]Matched cohort; M/F adultsYSmall sample size (33 cases/33 controls)UnlikelyNUnlikely“Clinical [13] detectable TMD”N

CC = case control; CE = clinical examination; CS = cross-sectional.

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