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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2012, Article ID 852183, 11 pages
Review Article

Anti-VEGF Agents for Ocular Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability

Department of Ophthalmology, Oita University, Faculty of Medicine, Hasama-machi, Yufu-shi, Oita 879-5593, Japan

Received 5 August 2011; Accepted 31 August 2011

Academic Editor: Yoshiaki Kiuchi

Copyright © 2012 Kenichi Kimoto and Toshiaki Kubota. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We review articles describing intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drug trials, while discussing the mechanisms of the action of anti-VEGF antibodies, and also evaluating their outcomes. Intraocular injections of anti-VEGF drug are considered to be an effective treatment for macular edema after retinal vein occlusion, however, recurrent/persistent edema is common. The recent reports may lead to a shift in treatment paradigm for DME, from laser photocoagulation, to newer approaches using anti-VEGF drugs. There have been several well-publicized prospective, randomized studies that demonstrated the efficacy of intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs for patients with AMD. Adjuvant bevacizumab for neovascular glaucoma may prevent further PAS formation, and it is likely to open up a therapeutic window for a panretinal photocoagulation and trabeculectomy. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) results in a substantial decrease in bleeding from the retinal vessels or new vessels during a standard vitrectomy. IVB has also been reported to be effective for inducing the regression of new vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The use of bevacizumab in stage 4 or 5 retinopahty of permaturity (ROP) is to reduce the plus sign to help reduce hemorrhage during the subsequent vitrectomy. Some authors reported cases of resolution of stage 4 A ROP after bevacizumab injection.