Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2014, Article ID 237812, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/237812
Research Article

Centre-of-Gravity Fixations in Visual Search: When Looking at Nothing Helps to Find Something

1The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
2School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, McElwain Building, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
3Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, Bielefeld University, 33602 Bielefeld, Germany
4The University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany

Received 8 December 2013; Revised 12 February 2014; Accepted 28 February 2014; Published 3 June 2014

Academic Editor: Arvid Herwig

Copyright © 2014 Dustin Venini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Findlay, “Global visual processing for saccadic eye movements,” Vision Research, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1033–1045, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. M. Findlay, “Visual information processing for saccadic eye movements,” in Spatially Oriented Behaviour, A. Hein and M. Jeannerod, Eds., pp. 281–303, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. van der Stigchel and T. C. W. Nijboer, “The global effect: what determines where the eyes land?” Journal of Eye Movement Research, vol. 4, pp. 1–13, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Vitu, “About the global effect and the critical role of retinal eccentricity: implications for eye movements in reading,” Journal of Eye Movement Research, vol. 2, pp. 1–18, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Coren and P. Hoenig, “Effect of non-target stimuli upon length of voluntary saccades,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 499–508, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Coeffe and J. K. O'Regan, “Reducing the influence of non-target stimuli on saccade accuracy: predictability and latency effects,” Vision Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 227–240, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. P. Ottes, J. A. M. van Gisbergen, and J. J. Eggermont, “Latency dependence of colour-based target vs nontarget discrimination by the saccadic system,” Vision Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 849–862, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Walker, H. Deubel, W. X. Schneider, and J. M. Findlay, “The effect of remote distractors on saccade programming: evidence for an extended fixation zone,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 78, pp. 1108–1119, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. M. Findlay, “Saccadic eye movement programming: sensory and attentional factors,” Psychological Research, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 127–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. W. Glimcher and D. L. Sparks, “Representation of averaging saccades in the superior colliculus of the monkey,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 429–435, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. Findlay and H. I. Blythe, “Saccade target selection: do distractors affect saccade accuracy?” Vision Research, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1267–1274, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. McSorley and J. M. Findlay, “Saccade target selection in visual search: accuracy improves when more distractors are present,” Journal of Vision, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 877–892, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. He and E. Kowler, “The role of location probability in the programming of saccades: implications for “center-of-gravity” tendencies,” Vision Research, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1165–1181, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. J. Zelinsky, “Using eye saccades to assess the selectivity of search movements,” Vision Research, vol. 36, pp. 2177–2187, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Herwig, M. Beisert, and W. X. Schneider, “On the spatial interaction of visual working memory and attention: evidence for a global effect from memory-guided saccades,” Journal of Vision, vol. 10, no. 5, article 8, 10 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. M. Reingold, N. Charness, M. Pomplun, and D. M. Stampe, “Visual span in expert chess players: evidence from eye movements,” Psychological Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. J. Zelinsky, “TAM: explaining off-object fixations and central fixation tendencies as effects of population averaging during search,” Visual Cognition, vol. 20, pp. 515–545, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. N. Charness, E. M. Reingold, M. Pomplun, and D. M. Stampe, “The perceptual aspect of skilled performance in chess: evidence from eye movements,” Memory and Cognition, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1146–1152, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Najemnik and W. S. Geisler, “Optimal eye movement strategies in visual search,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7031, pp. 387–391, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. E. Legge, T. S. Klitz, and B. S. Tjan, “Mr. Chips: an ideal-observer model of reading,” Psychological Review, vol. 104, pp. 524–553, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. M. Jacobs, “Eye-movement control in visual search: how direct is visual span control?” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. W. McConkie and K. Rayner, “The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 578–586, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. O'Regan, “Saccade size control in reading: evidence for the linguistic control hypothesis,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 501–509, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Ojanpää, R. Näsänen, and I. Kojo, “Eye movements in the visual search of word lists,” Vision Research, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1499–1512, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. J. Clark, “Spatial attention and latencies of saccadic eye movements,” Vision Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 585–600, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Itti and C. Koch, “A saliency-based search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention,” Vision Research, vol. 40, no. 10–12, pp. 1489–1506, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Theeuwes, A. F. Kramer, S. Hahn, and D. E. Irwin, “Our eyes do not always go where we want them to go: capture of the eyes by new objects,” Psychological Science, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 379–385, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. E. Williams and E. M. Reingold, “Preattentive guidance of eye movements during triple conjunction search tasks: the effects of feature discriminability and saccadic amplitude,” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 476–488, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. I. Becker and G. Horstmann, “A feature-weighting account of priming in conjunction search,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 258–272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Shen, E. M. Reingold, M. Pomplun, and D. E. Williams, “Saccadic selectivity during visual search: the influence of central processing difficulty,” in The Mind's Eyes: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research, J. Hyona, R. Radach, and H. Deubel, Eds., pp. 65–88, Elsevier Science, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  31. I. T. C. Hooge and C. J. Erkelens, “Adjustment of fixation duration in visual search,” Vision Research, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1295–1302, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. I. Becker, “Determinants of dwell time in visual search: similarity or perceptual difficulty?” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17740, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Rosenholtz, J. Huang, A. Raj, B. J. Balas, and L. Ilie, “A summary statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual search,” Journal of Vision, vol. 12, no. 4, article 14, 17 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar