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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 516854, 14 pages
Research Article

High-Resolution In Vivo Imaging of Regimes of Laser Damage to the Primate Retina

1The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 711 HPW/RHDO, 4141 Petroleum Road, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, University Station No. C0800, Austin, TX 78712, USA
3Penn State Hershey Anatomic Pathology, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
4U.S. Army Veterinary Corps at the Tri-Services Research Laboratory, 4141 Petroleum Road, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA
5TASC Inc., Biomedical Sciences and Technologies Department, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA

Received 5 August 2013; Revised 12 February 2014; Accepted 13 February 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Terri L. Young

Copyright © 2014 Ginger M. Pocock et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To investigate fundamental mechanisms of regimes of laser induced damage to the retina and the morphological changes associated with the damage response. Methods. Varying grades of photothermal, photochemical, and photomechanical retinal laser damage were produced in eyes of eight cynomolgus monkeys. An adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and spectral domain optical coherence tomographer were combined to simultaneously collect complementary in vivo images of retinal laser damage during and following exposure. Baseline color fundus photography was performed to complement high-resolution imaging. Monkeys were perfused with 10% buffered formalin and eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Laser energies for visible retinal damage in this study were consistent with previously reported damage thresholds. Lesions were identified in OCT images that were not visible in direct ophthalmoscopic examination or fundus photos. Unique diagnostic characteristics, specific to each damage regime, were identified and associated with shape and localization of lesions to specific retinal layers. Previously undocumented retinal healing response to blue continuous wave laser exposure was recorded through a novel experimental methodology. Conclusion. This study revealed increased sensitivity of lesion detection and improved specificity to the laser of origin utilizing high-resolution imaging when compared to traditional ophthalmic imaging techniques in the retina.