Table 3: Jadad scale for randomized controlled studies.

StudyRandomizationBlindingWithdrawalsSum of score

Cho et al. [16]●●4
Charm and Cho [22] ●●4

Jadad scale allocates 1 point for the presence of each of the following: randomization, blinding, and participant withdrawals/dropouts. If randomization and blinding were appropriate, 1 additional point was added for each. The total score ranged from 0 (bad) to 5 (good).