Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2015, Article ID 424783, 6 pages
Research Article

The Measurement of Intraocular Biomarkers in Various Stages of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Using Multiplex xMAP Technology

1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Pilsen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen, Czech Republic
2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Laboratory of Immunoanalysis, University Hospital Pilsen, Dr. E. Benese 13, 305 99 Plzen, Czech Republic
3Central Radioisotopic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Dr. E. Benese 13, 305 99 Plzen, Czech Republic

Received 19 December 2014; Accepted 27 February 2015

Academic Editor: Ricardo Giordano

Copyright © 2015 Stepan Rusnak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To determine the intraocular levels of growth factors and cytokines in patients with various degrees of severity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) using multiplex xMAP technology. Methods. A prospective cohort study of 61 eyes from 56 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the severity of PDR. Patients in group number 1 are those who presented PDR with no need of repeated surgical intervention; patients in group number 2 had repeated vitreous bleeding; and patients in group number 3 had refractory neovascular glaucoma. The concentrations of proangiogenic, antiangiogenic, inflammatory, and neurotrophic factors were measured in intraocular fluid. The results were also compared with levels of factors measured in 50 eyes from 50 patients prior to senile cataract surgery (control group). Results. Patients with refractory neovascular glaucoma (the highest clinical severity group) had higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) (median1 37.19; median3 384.74; ), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ-1) (median1 49.00; median3 414.40; ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (median1 211.62; median3 352.82; ) compared with other PDR patients. Conclusions. Results of our study imply that levels of IL-6, TGFβ-1, and VEGF correlate with the severity of PDR.