Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016, Article ID 1202469, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1202469
Clinical Study

Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China
2Pennsylvania College of Optometry, Salus University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Received 25 August 2016; Accepted 20 November 2016

Academic Editor: Antonio Queiros

Copyright © 2016 Martin Ming-Leung Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. A. Holden, T. R. Fricke, D. A. Wilson et al., “Global prevalence of myopia and high Myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050,” Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1036–1042, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. N. A. McBrien and D. W. Adams, “A longitudinal investigation of adult-onset and adult-progression of myopia in an occupational group. Refractive and Biometric Findings,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 321–333, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, J. Bauer, and R. Held, “Myopic children show insufficient accommodative response to blur,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 690–694, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Rosenfield and B. Gilmartin, “Disparity-induced accommodation in late-onset myopia,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 353–355, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Nakatsuka, S. Hasebe, F. Nonaka, and H. Ohtsuki, “Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 189–194, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. L. Abbott, K. L. Schmid, and N. C. Strang, “Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. L. Schmid and N. C. Strang, “Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes: a summary and update,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 613–621, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Price, P. M. Allen, H. Radhakrishnan et al., “The Cambridge anti-myopia study: variables associated with myopia progression,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1274–1283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. A. McBrien and M. Millodot, “The relationship between tonic accommodation and refractive error,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 997–1004, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. A. McBrien and M. Millodot, “Amplitude of accommodation and refractive error,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1187–1190, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. M. Allen and D. J. O'Leary, “Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error,” Vision Research, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 491–505, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. J. O'Leary and P. M. Allen, “Facility of accommodation in myopia,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 352–355, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Pandian, P. R. Sankaridurg, T. Naduvilath et al., “Accommodative facility in eyes with and without myopia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 4725–4731, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. A. McBrien and M. Millodot, “Differences in adaptation of tonic accommodation with refractive state,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 460–469, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Harb, F. Thorn, and D. Troilo, “Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes,” Vision Research, vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 2581–2592, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. A. Goss, “Clinical accommodation and heterophoria findings preceding juvenile onset of myopia,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 110–116, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Gwiazda, K. Grice, and F. Thorn, “Response AC/A ratios are elevated in myopic children,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 173–179, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. O. Mutti, L. A. Jones, M. L. Moeschberger, and K. Zadnik, “AC/A ratio, age, and refractive error in children,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2469–2478, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Kergoat and J. V. Lovasik, “Influence of target color and vergence of light on ocular accommodation during binocular fixation,” Current Eye Research, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 935–953, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Wallman and S. McFadden, “Monkey eyes grow into focus,” Nature Medicine, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 737–739, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Jones, “Physiological pseudomyopia,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 610–616, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. W. Fulk, L. A. Cyert, and D. E. Parker, “A randomized clinical trial of bifocal glasses for myopic children with esophoria: results after 54 months,” Optometry, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 470–476, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, M. Hussein et al., “A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1492–1500, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, “Progressive-addition lenses versus single-vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 2749–2757, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Scheiman, S. Cotter, M. T. Kulp et al., “Treatment of accommodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1343–1352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. M. Allen, H. Radhakrishnan, S. Rae et al., “Aberration control and vision training as an effective means of improving accommodation in individuals with myopia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 5120–5129, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. M. Allen, H. Radhakrishnan, H. Price et al., “A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of a dual treatment on myopia progression: The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 267–276, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Brautaset, M. Wahlberg, S. Abdi, and T. Pansell, “Accommodation insufficiency in children: are exercises better than reading glasses?” Strabismus, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 65–69, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Cooper, J. Feldman, A. Selenow et al., “Reduction of asthenopia after accommodative facility training,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 430–436, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Sterner, M. Abrahamsson, and A. Sjostrom, “Accommodative facility training with a long term follow up in a sample of school aged children showing accommodative dysfunction,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 93–101, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Sterner, M. Abrahamsson, and A. Sjöström, “The effects of accommodative facility training on a group of children with impaired relative accommodation—a comparison between dioptric treatment and sham treatment,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 470–476, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. J. Borsting, M. W. Rouse, G. L. Mitchell et al., “Validity and reliability of the revised convergence insufficiency symptom survey in children aged 9 to 18 years,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 832–838, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. W. Rouse, R. London, and D. C. Allen, “An evaluation of the monocular estimate method of dynamic retinoscopy,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 234–239, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Cheng, K. L. Schmid, and G. C. Woo, “The effect of positive-lens addition and base-in prism on accommodation accuracy and near horizontal phoria in Chinese myopic children,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 225–237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. “Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Investigator Group Randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, pp. 1336–1349, 2008. View at Scopus
  36. E. Borsting, “Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders, 4th ed., Mitchell Scheiman, Bruce Wick,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 91, no. 3, p. e86, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. H. W. Hofstetter, “Useful age-amplitude formula,” Optometric World, vol. 38, pp. 42–45, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  38. H. W. Hofstetter, “A comparison of duane's and donders' tables of the amplitude of accommodation,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 345–363, 1944. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Hennessey, R. A. Iosue, and M. W. Rouse, “Relation of symptoms to accommodative infacility of school-aged children,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 177–183, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Kulp, G. L. Mitchell, E. Borsting et al., “Effectiveness of placebo therapy for maintaining masking in a clinical trial of vergence/accommodative therapy,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 2560–2566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. T. Kulp, E. Borsting, G. L. Mitchell et al., “Feasibility of using placebo vision therapy in a multicenter clinical trial,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 255–261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.
  43. J. J. McGough and S. V. Faraone, “Estimating the size of treatment effects: moving beyond P values,” Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 21–29, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. W. Rouse, R. F. Hutter, and R. Shiftlett, “A normative study of the accommodative lag in elementary school children,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 693–697, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. F. McClelland and K. J. Saunders, “Accommodative lag using dynamic retinoscopy: age norms for school-age children,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 929–933, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Rosenfield, J. K. Portello, G. H. Blustein, and C. Jang, “Comparison of clinical techniques to assess the near accommodative response,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 382–388, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. F. McClelland and K. J. Saunders, “The repeatability and validity of dynamic retinoscopy in assessing the accommodative response,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 243–250, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus