Table 3: Acute acquired comitant esotropia with unknown etiology.

AuthorNumber of patientsAge (years)DiagnosisTreatmentOutcome/comment

Malbran and Norbis
[19] (1956)
46–9Undetermined etiologyStrabismus surgery(i) Siblings

Burian and Miller
[3] (1958)
86–72Undetermined etiologyStrabismus surgery(i) Binocular potential

Goldman and Nelson
[1] (1985)
25–7Undetermined etiologyStrabismus surgery(i) Esotropia of 8 PD
(ii) Orthophoria

Clark et al.
[2] (1989)
65–11Undetermined etiologyStrabismus surgery(i) Orthophoria
(ii) One recurrent esotropia

Ahmed and Young
[20] (1993)
24-5Undetermined etiologyStrabismus surgery(i) Twins
(ii) Restored BSV

Simon and Borchert [21] (1997)105–351/10 had neurological disease
7/10 had refractive element
Optical correction
Strabismus surgery
(i) Esotropia improved

Lyons et al.
[22] (1999)
103.5–241/10 had cerebellar astrocytoma
9/10 had hypermetropia
Optical correction
Strabismus surgery
(i) Uncorrected hypermetropia
(ii) Decompensated monofixation syndrome

BSV: binocular single vision; PD: prism diopters.