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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3690140, 15 pages
Review Article

Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake

NIC-RD/HN Toxicology and Kinetics, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Wurmisweg 576, 4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland

Received 29 October 2015; Accepted 6 December 2015

Academic Editor: Joan E. Roberts

Copyright © 2016 James A. Edwards. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission.