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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016, Article ID 4367631, 13 pages
Review Article

Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, 70013 Crete, Greece
2Department of Ophthalmology, HCU and IOBA, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
3Unit of Macula, Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain
4Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
5Vision Institute, National Center of Ophthalmology, Paris, France

Received 8 December 2015; Accepted 22 February 2016

Academic Editor: Naoshi Kondo

Copyright © 2016 Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.