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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016, Article ID 8734309, 8 pages
Research Article

Nonlethal Levels of Zeaxanthin Inhibit Cell Migration, Invasion, and Secretion of MMP-2 via NF-κB Pathway in Cultured Human Uveal Melanoma Cells

1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Tissue Culture Center, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10003, USA
3Fordham University, New York, NY 10023, USA
4Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China
5Lixiang Eye Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215021, China

Received 27 October 2015; Accepted 4 January 2016

Academic Editor: Shun-Fa Yang

Copyright © 2016 Ming-Chao Bi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Zeaxanthin at nonlethal dosages (3–10 μM) significantly inhibited the cell migration of cultured uveal melanoma cells (C918 cell line) as determined by wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Matrigel invasion assay showed that cell invasion of uveal melanoma cells could be significantly inhibited by zeaxanthin. Secretion of MMP-2 by melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by zeaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner as measured by ELISA kit. Zeaxanthin also significantly inhibited the NF-κB levels in nuclear extracts of the UM cells, which is the upstream of the MMP-2 secretion. These results suggest that zeaxanthin might be a potentially therapeutic approach in the prevention of metastasis in uveal melanoma.