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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1295132, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1295132
Review Article

Molecular Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment of the Eye

1Research Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera “Hospital Luis Sanchez Bulnes”, I.A.P., 04030 México City, Mexico
2Cell Biology Department, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, 07360 México City, Mexico
3Anterior Segment Surgery Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera “Hospital Luis Sanchez Bulnes”, I.A.P., 04030 México City, Mexico
4University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas; moc.liamg@sanilaszelaznog.rd

Received 29 April 2017; Revised 9 July 2017; Accepted 30 August 2017; Published 24 September 2017

Academic Editor: Alejandro Cerviño

Copyright © 2017 Luis Fernando Hernandez-Zimbron et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To examine the current knowledge about the age-related processes in the anterior segment of the eye at a biological, clinical, and molecular level. Methods. We reviewed the available published literature that addresses the aging process of the anterior segment of the eye and its associated molecular and physiological events. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase using the MeSH terms “eye,” “anterior segment,” and “age.” We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1) “Eye” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment ageing” and (2) “Anterior segment” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment” AND “molecular changes” AND “age.” Results. Among the principal causes of age-dependent alterations in the anterior segment of the eye, we found the mutation of the TGF-β gene and loss of autophagy in addition to oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases. Conclusions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding some of the molecular mechanisms related to aging in the anterior segment of the eye. We also introduce and propose potential roles of autophagy, an important mechanism responsible for maintaining homeostasis and proteostasis under stress conditions in the anterior segment during aging.