Journal of Ophthalmology / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases: The Prospect of the Eye as a Tool for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Table 1

Visual system pathological and functional alterations in Alzheimer’s disease.

Ocular structures and clinical factsPathological changes

RetinaDeposition of proteins tau, Aβ, and pTAu [35, 38, 39, 118]; accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein [138, 139]
Impairment of amyloid β precursor protein (APP) metabolism [140, 141, 142]
Reduction in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) [8587,143]
Reduction of retinal thickness [85, 93, 144]
Reduction to the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness [89, 145]
Retrograde degeneration from loss of cortical neurons [146, 147]
Inflammation [148, 149, 150]

Retinal and choroidal vasculatureRetinal and choroidal vascular β-amyloid deposits in transgenic mouse model of AD lead to retinal degeneration [107]
Reduction of vascularization [151]

Retinal vascular blood flowBlood flow abnormalities may cause neurodegeneration [152]

Optic nerveAxonal degeneration in the axonal segments [85, 140]
Loss of optic nerve thickness [153, 154]
Papillary paleness due to axonal loss and perfusion alterations [155]

LensCorrelation between AD and supranuclear cataract [156, 157]
Presence of abnormal protein deposits [124, 157]

TearsChanges in the chemical barrier composition of tears [136]
CorneaReduced corneal sensitivity [137]

PupilPupillary responses possible biomarker [158, 159]
ChoroidAttenuation of choroidal thickness [160, 161]

Aqueous humourDetection of Alzheimer connected, β-amyloid peptides, and chemokines in the aqueous humour [162, 163]

Visual fieldDysfunction in different tasks of basic vision and visual cognition [164]
Visual acuityDecreased visual acuity [165]

Sensory perceptionClinically important symptoms of visuospatial disorientation [166, 167]
Visual processingDeficits of visual motion perception [168]

Contrast sensitivityContrast sensitivity disturbances and motion perception [169, 170]
Colour visionIncomplete achromatopsia [171]

StereopsisReduced stereoscopic depth perception [172, 173]

Circadian rhythmAlterations in the circadian rhythm and β-amyloid deposits inside and surrounding degenerating mRGCs [174176]

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.