Table 1: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of study population (n = 42).


Gender, male31 (73.8)
Age, years56.0 (19.0–71.0)
Duration of diabetes (years)10.5 (1.0–37.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.9 (20.0–31.6)
History of laser photocoagulation, yes29 (69.0)
Tractional retinal detachment, yes13 (31.0)
Epiretinal membrane, yes4 (9.5)
Vitreous hemorrhage, yes25 (59.5)
Insulin treatment, yes27 (45.0)
Hypertension, yes28 (66.7)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131.5 (98.0–170.0)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.0 (53.0–110.0)
Alcohol consumption, yes8 (19.1)
Smoking status, yes8 (19.1)
HbA1c (%)8.2 (5.7–13.3)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)149.0 (70.0–302.0)
Postprandial glucose (mg/dL)205.0 (85.0–405.0)
HOMA-IR4.4 (0.5–42.4)
HOMA-beta58.3 (5.8–1827.3)
C-peptide (ng/ml)2.1 (0.0–6.2)
Insulin (μU/ml)11.6 (1.6–81.7)
Microalbuminuria (μg/ml)86.1 (3–2400.7)
Serum BUN (mg/dL)66.1 (1.4–331.3)
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.9 (0.4–11.9)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)177.5 (92.0–431.0)
Triglyceride (mg/dL)128.5 (30.0–492.0)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)38.5 (23.0–84.0)
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)93.5 (39.0–249.0)
Apolipoprotein-A (mg/dL)118.0 (72.0–195.0)
Apolipoprotein-B (mg/dL)87.0 (43.0–203.0)
Lipoprotein A (mg/dL)15.2 (2.6–150.0)

Hypertension was defined using the average of two blood pressure readings with cut points of systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or hypertension medication use. Alcohol drinking status was described as yes if the patient consumed alcohol at least once a week in the past 6 months. Smoking status was determined by seven cigarettes per week in the past 6 months. HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; HOMA-beta, homeostasis model assessment-beta; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; IL, interleukin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. Values are represented in frequency and percentage for categorical variables and mean and range for continuous variables.