Figure 7: sFRP1 activates the noncanonical Wnt signaling. (a) Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that both Wnt5a and sFRP1 can stimulate the expression of CHOP and MMP1 (red and purple bars). Stronger effects were observed when cells were treated with Wnt5a and sFRP1 together (green bar). Immunostaining demonstrated that sFRP1 stimulates the expression of CHOP and ROR2 (red channel) ((k)–(s)). Upper panels were cells infected with AdGFP control virus, and lower panels were cells infected with AdsFRP1 virus. All adenoviruses also expressed GFP. Combined channels revealed the expression of protein of interest (red) in adenovirus-infected cells (green) ((b)–(d) and (k)–(m)). Red channel signaling clearly demonstrated the increased signals from cells infected with AdsFRP1 (compare (e)–(g) with (n)–(p)). Green channel signaling revealed the adenovirus-infected cells ((h)–(j) and (q)–(s)).