Journal of Optimization http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bidirectional Nonnegative Deep Model and Its Optimization in Learning Wed, 16 Nov 2016 13:17:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/5975120/ Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has been successfully applied in signal processing as a simple two-layer nonnegative neural network. Projective NMF (PNMF) with fewer parameters was proposed, which projects a high-dimensional nonnegative data onto a lower-dimensional nonnegative subspace. Although PNMF overcomes the problem of out-of-sample of NMF, it does not consider the nonlinear characteristic of data and is only a kind of narrow signal decomposition method. In this paper, we combine the PNMF with deep learning and nonlinear fitting to propose a bidirectional nonnegative deep learning (BNDL) model and its optimization learning algorithm, which can obtain nonlinear multilayer deep nonnegative feature representation. Experiments show that the proposed model can not only solve the problem of out-of-sample of NMF but also learn hierarchical nonnegative feature representations with better clustering performance than classical NMF, PNMF, and Deep Semi-NMF algorithms. Xianhua Zeng, Zhengyi He, Hong Yu, and Shengwei Qu Copyright © 2016 Xianhua Zeng et al. All rights reserved. An Analysis of Robustness Approaches for the Airport Baggage Sorting Station Assignment Problem Thu, 08 Sep 2016 13:41:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/1213949/ In the Airport Baggage Sorting Station Assignment Problem (ABSSAP), the Baggage Sorting Stations (BSSs) are assigned to flights for the period of time necessary to perform their service for a given flights’ schedule. But the flights schedule may change on the day of operation which may deem the original assignment of some flights to BSSs infeasible. These changes may create conflicts between those flights whose schedules have changed and may not be restricted to those flights but propagating to the other flights for different reasons. Conflicts depend on the original assignments for the real arrival and departure flight times on the day of operation. It is therefore desirable to consider potential delays on the day of operation when generating the original flight assignments to BSSs, such that the final flight assignments differ little or do not differ at all from the original assignments on the day of operation. The term robustness is here used to give an indication of the degree to which this has been achieved. Some existing approaches originally presented in the Airport Gate Assignment Problem (AGAP) are adapted to the ABSSAP, other approaches are suggested for generating assignments which take account of potential perturbations on the day of operation for the ABSSAP, and all of them are then compared. It is shown that the suggested approaches by themselves do not perform better than the other considered approaches but when combined they enhance the result further compared to when each approach is used alone. Amadeo Ascó Copyright © 2016 Amadeo Ascó. All rights reserved. Finding the Efficiency Status and Efficient Projection in Multiobjective Linear Fractional Programming: A Linear Programming Technique Tue, 06 Sep 2016 12:43:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/9175371/ Multiobjective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problems are the important problems with special structures in multiobjective optimization. In the MOLFP problems, the objective functions are linear fractional functions and the constraints are linear; that is, the feasible set is a polyhedron. In this paper, we suggest a method to identify the efficiency status of the feasible solutions of an MOLFP problem. By the proposed method, an efficient projection on the efficient space for an inefficient solution is obtained. The proposed problems are constructed in linear programming structures. S. Morteza Mirdehghan and Hassan Rostamzadeh Copyright © 2016 S. Morteza Mirdehghan and Hassan Rostamzadeh. All rights reserved. Introducing Complexity Curtailing Techniques for the Tour Construction Heuristics for the Travelling Salesperson Problem Tue, 23 Aug 2016 14:25:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/4786268/ In this paper, complexity curtailing techniques are introduced to create faster version of insertion heuristics, that is, cheapest insertion heuristic (CIH) and largest insertion heuristic (LIH), effectively reducing their complexities from to with no significant effect on quality of solution. This paper also examines relatively not very known heuristic concept of max difference and shows that it can be culminated into a full-fledged max difference insertion heuristic (MDIH) by defining its missing steps. Further to this the paper extends the complexity curtailing techniques to MDIH to create its faster version. The resultant heuristic, that is, fast max difference insertion heuristic (FMDIH), outperforms the “farthest insertion” heuristic (FIH) across a wide spectrum of popular datasets with statistical significance, even though both the heuristics have the same worst case complexity of . It should be noted that FIH is considered best among lowest order complexity heuristics. The complexity curtailing techniques presented here open up the new area of research for their possible extension to other heuristics. Ziauddin Ursani and David W. Corne Copyright © 2016 Ziauddin Ursani and David W. Corne. All rights reserved. Location of Farmers Warehouse at Adaklu Traditional Area, Volta Region, Ghana Sun, 31 Jul 2016 09:17:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/2459734/ Postharvest loss is one major problem farmers in Adaklu Traditional Area that most Ghanaian farmers face. As a result, many farmers wallow in abject poverty. Warehouses are important facilities that help to reduce postharvest loss. In this research, Beresnev pseudo-Boolean Simple Plant Location Problem (SPLP) model is used to locate a warehouse at Adaklu Traditional Area, Volta Region, Ghana. This model was used because it gives a straightforward computation and produces no iteration as compared with other models. The SPLP is a problem of selecting a site from candidate sites to locate a plant so that customers can be supplied from the plant at a minimum cost. The model is made up of fixed cost and transportation cost. Location index ordering matrix was developed from the transportation cost matrix and we used it with the fixed cost and differences between variable costs to formulate the Beresnev function. Linear term developed from the function which was partial is pegged to obtain a complete solution. Of the 14 notable communities considered, Adaklu Waya is found most suitable for the setting of the warehouse. The total cost involved is Gh 78,180.00. Vincent Tulasi, Isaac Kwasi Adu, and Elikem Kofi Krampa Copyright © 2016 Vincent Tulasi et al. All rights reserved. Hybridization of Adaptive Differential Evolution with an Expensive Local Search Method Sun, 31 Jul 2016 05:52:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/3260940/ Differential evolution (DE) is an effective and efficient heuristic for global optimization problems. However, it faces difficulty in exploiting the local region around the approximate solution. To handle this issue, local search (LS) techniques could be hybridized with DE to improve its local search capability. In this work, we hybridize an updated version of DE, adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive (JADE) with an expensive LS method, Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shano (BFGS) for solving continuous unconstrained global optimization problems. The new hybrid algorithm is denoted by DEELS. To validate the performance of DEELS, we carried out extensive experiments on well known test problems suits, CEC2005 and CEC2010. The experimental results, in terms of function error values, success rate, and some other statistics, are compared with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms, self-adaptive control parameters in differential evolution (jDE), sequential DE enhanced by neighborhood search for large-scale global optimization (SDENS), and differential ant-stigmergy algorithm (DASA). These comparisons reveal that DEELS outperforms jDE and SDENS except DASA on the majority of test instances. Rashida Adeeb Khanum, Muhammad Asif Jan, Nasser Mansoor Tairan, and Wali Khan Mashwani Copyright © 2016 Rashida Adeeb Khanum et al. All rights reserved. An Optimal SVM with Feature Selection Using Multiobjective PSO Mon, 18 Jul 2016 09:34:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/6305043/ Support vector machine is a classifier, based on the structured risk minimization principle. The performance of the SVM depends on different parameters such as penalty factor, , and the kernel factor, . Also choosing an appropriate kernel function can improve the recognition score and lower the amount of computation. Furthermore, selecting the useful features among several features in dataset not only increases the performance of the SVM, but also reduces the computational time and complexity. So this is an optimization problem which can be solved by heuristic algorithm. In some cases besides the recognition score, the reliability of the classifier’s output is important. So in such cases a multiobjective optimization algorithm is needed. In this paper we have got the MOPSO algorithm to optimize the parameters of the SVM, choose appropriate kernel function, and select the best feature subset simultaneously in order to optimize the recognition score and the reliability of the SVM concurrently. Nine different datasets, from UCI machine learning repository, are used to evaluate the power and the effectiveness of the proposed method (MOPSO-SVM). The results of the proposed method are compared to those which are achieved by single SVM, RBF, and MLP neural networks. Iman Behravan, Oveis Dehghantanha, Seyed Hamid Zahiri, and Nasser Mehrshad Copyright © 2016 Iman Behravan et al. All rights reserved. Evidence Maximization Technique for Training of Elastic Nets Thu, 30 Jun 2016 12:32:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/2659012/ This paper presents a technique of evidence maximization for automatic tuning of regularization parameters of elastic nets, which allows tuning many parameters simultaneously. This technique was applied to handwritten digit recognition. Experiments showed its ability to train either models with high accuracy of recognition or highly sparse models with reasonable accuracy. Igor Dubnov, Alexander Merkov, Vladimir Arlazarov, and Ilia Nikolaev Copyright © 2016 Igor Dubnov et al. All rights reserved. The Vulnerability of Some Networks including Cycles via Domination Parameters Mon, 13 Jun 2016 10:50:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/4705493/ Let be an undirected simple connected graph. A network is usually represented by an undirected simple graph where vertices represent processors and edges represent links between processors. Finding the vulnerability values of communication networks modeled by graphs is important for network designers. The vulnerability value of a communication network shows the resistance of the network after the disruption of some centers or connection lines until a communication breakdown. The domination number and its variations are the most important vulnerability parameters for network vulnerability. Some variations of domination numbers are the 2-domination number, the bondage number, the reinforcement number, the average lower domination number, the average lower 2-domination number, and so forth. In this paper, we study the vulnerability of cycles and related graphs, namely, fans, -pyramids, and -gon books, via domination parameters. Then, exact solutions of the domination parameters are obtained for the above-mentioned graphs. Tufan Turaci and Hüseyin Aksan Copyright © 2016 Tufan Turaci and Hüseyin Aksan. All rights reserved. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase Wed, 08 Jun 2016 07:54:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/8089794/ Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency) to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes), the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency) to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon. Lay Eng Teoh and Hooi Ling Khoo Copyright © 2016 Lay Eng Teoh and Hooi Ling Khoo. All rights reserved. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Bank Efficiency Using Combined Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process Methods Tue, 10 May 2016 13:36:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/5259817/ Bank branches have a vital role in the economy of all countries. They collect assets from various sources and put them in the hand of those sectors that need liquidity. Due to the limited financial and human resources and capitals and also because of the unlimited and new customers’ needs and strong competition between banks and financial and credit institutions, the purpose of this study is to provide an answer to the question of which of the factors affecting performance, creating value, and increasing shareholder dividends are superior to others and consequently managers should pay more attention to them. Therefore, in this study, the factors affecting performance (efficiency) in the areas of management, personnel, finance, and customers were segmented and obtained results were ranked using both methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and hierarchical analysis. In both of these methods, the leadership style in the area of management; the recruitment and resource allocation in the area of financing; the employees’ satisfaction, dignity, and self-actualization in the area of employees; and meeting the new needs of customers got more weights. Mehdi Fallah Jelodar Copyright © 2016 Mehdi Fallah Jelodar. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with a Knowledge-Based Operator for Solving the Job Shop Scheduling Problems Tue, 12 Apr 2016 12:50:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/7319036/ Scheduling is considered as an important topic in production management and combinatorial optimization in which it ubiquitously exists in most of the real-world applications. The attempts of finding optimal or near optimal solutions for the job shop scheduling problems are deemed important, because they are characterized as highly complex and -hard problems. This paper describes the development of a hybrid genetic algorithm for solving the nonpreemptive job shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing makespan. In order to solve the presented problem more effectively, an operation-based representation was used to enable the construction of feasible schedules. In addition, a new knowledge-based operator was designed based on the problem’s characteristics in order to use machines’ idle times to improve the solution quality, and it was developed in the context of function evaluation. A machine based precedence preserving order-based crossover was proposed to generate the offspring. Furthermore, a simulated annealing based neighborhood search technique was used to improve the local exploitation ability of the algorithm and to increase its population diversity. In order to prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, numerous benchmarked instances were collected from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness. Hamed Piroozfard, Kuan Yew Wong, and Adnan Hassan Copyright © 2016 Hamed Piroozfard et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Conductive Thin Film Epoxy Composites Properties Using Desirability Optimization Methodology Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:47:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/1652928/ Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy thin film nanocomposites were prepared using spin coating technique. The effects of process parameters such as sonication duration (5–35 min) and filler loadings (1-2 vol%) were studied using the design of experiment (DOE). Full factorial design was used to create the design matrix for the two factors with three-level experimentation, resulting in a total of 9 runs () of experimentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) combined with E.C. Harrington’s desirability function called desirability optimization methodology (DOM) was used to optimize the multiple properties (tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity) of MWCNTs/epoxy thin film composites. Based on response surface analysis, quadratic model was developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), -squared (-Sq), and normal plot of residuals were applied to determine the accuracy of the models. The range of lower and upper limits was determined in an overlaid contour plot. Desirability function was used to optimize the multiple responses of MWCNTs/epoxy thin film composites. A global solution of 12.88 min sonication and 1.67 vol% filler loadings was obtained to have maximum desired responses with composite desirability of 1. C. P. Khor, Mariatti bt Jaafar, and Sivakumar Ramakrishnan Copyright © 2016 C. P. Khor et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism Mon, 22 Feb 2016 16:46:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2016/8518921/ The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles is limited for some types. A mathematical programming model in the form of the discrete nonlinear optimization model is proposed. A hybrid dynamic programming algorithm is developed for finding the optimal solution. To increase the computational efficiency of the solution algorithm, several concepts and routines, such as the imbedded state routine, surrogate constraint concept, and bounding schemes, are incorporated in the dynamic programming algorithm. A real world case problem is selected and solved by the proposed solution algorithm, and the optimal solution is obtained. Farhad Ghassemi Tari Copyright © 2016 Farhad Ghassemi Tari. All rights reserved. On Fuzzy Multiobjective Multi-Item Solid Transportation Problem Wed, 25 Mar 2015 08:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2015/787050/ A transportation problem involving multiple objectives, multiple products, and three constraints, namely, source, destination, and conveyance, is called the multiobjective multi-item solid transportation problem (MOMISTP). Recently, Kundu et al. (2013) proposed a method to solve an unbalanced MOMISTP. In this paper, we suggest a method, which first converts an unbalanced problem to a balanced one. In one case of an example, while the method proposed by Kundu et al. concludes infeasibility, our method gives a feasible solution. Deepika Rani, T. R. Gulati, and Amit Kumar Copyright © 2015 Deepika Rani et al. All rights reserved. A Structural Optimization Framework for Multidisciplinary Design Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2015/345120/ This work describes the development of a structural optimization framework adept at accommodating diverse customer requirements. The purpose is to provide a framework accessible to the optimization research analyst. The framework integrates the method of moving asymptotes into the finite element analysis program (FEAP) by exploiting the direct interface capability in FEAP. Analytic sensitivities are incorporated to provide a robust and efficient optimization search. User macros are developed to interface the design algorithm and analytic sensitivity with the finite element analysis program. To test the optimization tool and sensitivity calculations, three sizing and one topology optimization problems are considered. In addition, flutter analysis of a heated panel is analyzed as an example of coupling to nonstructural discipline. In sizing optimization, the calculated semianalytic sensitivities match analytic and finite difference calculations. Differences between analytic designs and numerical ones are less than 2.0% and are attributed to discrete nature of finite elements. In the topology problem, quadratic elements are found robust at resolving checkerboard patterns. Mohammad Kurdi Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Kurdi. All rights reserved. Minimization of Surface Roughness and Tool Vibration in CNC Milling Operation Sat, 31 Jan 2015 11:41:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2015/192030/ Tool vibration and surface roughness are two important parameters which affect the quality of the component and tool life which indirectly affect the component cost. In this paper, the effect of cutting parameters on tool vibration, and surface roughness has been investigated during end milling of EN-31 tool steel. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to develop mathematical model for predicting surface finish, tool vibration and tool wear with different combinations of cutting parameters. The experimental results show that feed rate is the most dominating parameter affecting surface finish, whereas cutting speed is the major factor effecting tool vibration. The results of mathematical model are in agreement with experimental investigations done to validate the mathematical model. Sukhdev S. Bhogal, Charanjeet Sindhu, Sukhdeep S. Dhami, and B. S. Pabla Copyright © 2015 Sukhdev S. Bhogal et al. All rights reserved. Constraint Consensus Methods for Finding Strictly Feasible Points of Linear Matrix Inequalities Thu, 08 Jan 2015 12:54:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2015/790451/ We give algorithms for solving the strict feasibility problem for linear matrix inequalities. These algorithms are based on John Chinneck’s constraint consensus methods, in particular, the method of his original paper and the modified DBmax constraint consensus method from his paper with Ibrahim. Our algorithms start with one of these methods as “Phase 1.” Constraint consensus methods work for any differentiable constraints, but we take advantage of the structure of linear matrix inequalities. In particular, for linear matrix inequalities, the crossing points of each constraint boundary with the consensus ray can be calculated. In this way we check for strictly feasible points in “Phase 2” of our algorithms. We present four different algorithms, depending on whether the original (basic) or DBmax constraint consensus vector is used in Phase 1 and, independently, in Phase 2. We present results of numerical experiments that compare the four algorithms. The evidence suggests that one of our algorithms is the best, although none of them are guaranteed to find a strictly feasible point after a given number of iterations. We also give results of numerical experiments indicating that our best method compares favorably to a new variant of the method of alternating projections. Shafiu Jibrin and James W. Swift Copyright © 2015 Shafiu Jibrin and James W. Swift. All rights reserved. Ranking All DEA-Efficient DMUs Based on Cross Efficiency and Analytic Hierarchy Process Methods Mon, 05 Jan 2015 06:47:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2015/594727/ The aim of this paper is to present an original approach for ranking of DEA-efficient DMUs based on the cross efficiency and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods. The approach includes two basic stages. In the first stage using DEA models the cross efficiency value of each DEA-efficiency DMU is specified. In the second stage, the pairwise comparison matrix generated in the first stage is utilized to rank scale of the units via the one-step process of AHP. The advantage of this proposed method is its capability of ranking extreme and nonextreme DEA-efficient DMUs. The numerical examples are presented in this paper and we compare our approach with some other approaches. Dariush Akbarian Copyright © 2015 Dariush Akbarian. All rights reserved. Multi-Objective Optimization of Two-Stage Helical Gear Train Using NSGA-II Sun, 30 Nov 2014 00:10:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/670297/ Gears not only transmit the motion and power satisfactorily but also can do so with uniform motion. The design of gears requires an iterative approach to optimize the design parameters that take care of kinematics aspects as well as strength aspects. Moreover, the choice of materials available for gears is limited. Owing to the complex combinations of the above facts, manual design of gears is complicated and time consuming. In this paper, the volume and load carrying capacity are optimized. Three different methodologies (i) MATLAB optimization toolbox, (ii) genetic algorithm (GA), and (iii) multiobjective optimization (NSGA-II) technique are used to solve the problem. In the first two methods, volume is minimized in the first step and then the load carrying capacities of both shafts are calculated. In the third method, the problem is treated as a multiobjective problem. For the optimization purpose, face width, module, and number of teeth are taken as design variables. Constraints are imposed on bending strength, surface fatigue strength, and interference. It is apparent from the comparison of results that the result obtained by NSGA-II is more superior than the results obtained by other methods in terms of both objectives. R. C. Sanghvi, A. S. Vashi, H. P. Patolia, and R. G. Jivani Copyright © 2014 R. C. Sanghvi et al. All rights reserved. Ordering Cost Reduction in Inventory Model with Defective Items and Backorder Price Discount Wed, 12 Nov 2014 12:02:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/767943/ In the real market, as unsatisfied demands occur, the longer the length of lead time is, the smaller the proportion of backorder would be. In order to make up for the inconvenience and even the losses of royal and patient customers, the supplier may offer a backorder price discount to secure orders during the shortage period. Also, ordering policies determined by conventional inventory models may be inappropriate for the situation in which an arrival lot contains some defective items. To compensate for the inconvenience of backordering and to secure orders, the supplier may offer a price discount on the stockout item. The purpose of this study is to explore a coordinated inventory model including defective arrivals by allowing the backorder price discount and ordering cost as decision variables. There are two inventory models proposed in this paper, one with normally distributed demand and another with distribution free demand. A computer code using the software Matlab 7.0 is developed to find the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the models. The results in the numerical examples indicate that the savings of the total cost are realized through ordering cost reduction and backorder price discount. Karuppuchamy Annadurai and Ramasamy Uthayakumar Copyright © 2014 Karuppuchamy Annadurai and Ramasamy Uthayakumar. All rights reserved. A New Measure for Detecting Influential DMUs in DEA Thu, 16 Oct 2014 14:13:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/567692/ We discuss about influential DMUs and also we review some related studies in the literature. Then we propose a new method to detect influential DMUs, which is based on Euclidean distance and omitting the efficient DMUs by using single case deletion. Our method will be explained with an empirical example. Irmak Acarlar, Harun Kınacı, and Vadoud Najjari Copyright © 2014 Irmak Acarlar et al. All rights reserved. Combustion Model and Control Parameter Optimization Methods for Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Mon, 22 Sep 2014 07:30:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/135163/ This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, , and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller. Bambang Wahono and Harutoshi Ogai Copyright © 2014 Bambang Wahono and Harutoshi Ogai. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Optimization Involving Quadratic Functions Mon, 15 Sep 2014 08:56:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/406092/ Multiobjective optimization is nowadays a word of order in engineering projects. Although the idea involved is simple, the implementation of any procedure to solve a general problem is not an easy task. Evolutionary algorithms are widespread as a satisfactory technique to find a candidate set for the solution. Usually they supply a discrete picture of the Pareto front even if this front is continuous. In this paper we propose three methods for solving unconstrained multiobjective optimization problems involving quadratic functions. In the first, for biobjective optimization defined in the bidimensional space, a continuous Pareto set is found analytically. In the second, applicable to multiobjective optimization, a condition test is proposed to check if a point in the decision space is Pareto optimum or not and, in the third, with functions defined in n-dimensional space, a direct noniterative algorithm is proposed to find the Pareto set. Simple problems highlight the suitability of the proposed methods. Oscar Brito Augusto, Fouad Bennis, and Stephane Caro Copyright © 2014 Oscar Brito Augusto et al. All rights reserved. Two-Dimensional IIR Filter Design Using Simulated Annealing Based Particle Swarm Optimization Tue, 09 Sep 2014 11:35:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/239721/ We present a novel hybrid algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and simulated annealing (SA) for the design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters. The proposed method, known as SA-PSO, integrates the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SA and offsets the weakness of each other. The acceptance criterion of Metropolis is included in the basic algorithm of PSO to increase the swarm’s diversity by accepting sometimes weaker solutions also. The experimental results reveal that the performance of the optimal filter designed by the proposed SA-PSO method is improved. Further, the convergence behavior as well as optimization accuracy of proposed method has been improved significantly and computational time is also reduced. In addition, the proposed SA-PSO method also produces the best optimal solution with lower mean and variance which indicates that the algorithm can be used more efficiently in realizing two-dimensional digital filters. Supriya Dhabal and Palaniandavar Venkateswaran Copyright © 2014 Supriya Dhabal and Palaniandavar Venkateswaran. All rights reserved. Optimal and Suboptimal Resource Allocation in MIMO Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks Sun, 31 Aug 2014 08:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/190196/ The core aim of this work is the maximization of the achievable data rate of the secondary user pairs (SU pairs), while ensuring the QoS of primary users (PUs). All users are assumed to be equipped with multiple antennas. It is assumed that when PUs are present, the direct communication between SU pairs introduces intolerable interference to PUs and thereby SUs transmit signal using the cooperation of one of the SUs and avoid transmission in the direct channel. In brief, an adaptive cooperative strategy for MIMO cognitive radio networks is proposed. At the presence of PUs, the issue of joint relay selection and power allocation in underlay MIMO cooperative cognitive radio networks (U-MIMO-CCRN) is addressed. The optimal approach for determining the power allocation and the cooperating SU is proposed. Besides, the outage probability of the proposed system is further derived. Due to high complexity of the optimal approach, a low complexity approach is further proposed and its performance is evaluated using simulations. The simulation results reveal that the performance loss due to the low complexity approach is only about 14%, while the complexity is greatly reduced. Mehdi Ghamari Adian and Mahin Ghamari Adyan Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Ghamari Adian and Mahin Ghamari Adyan. All rights reserved. An Improved Laguerre-Samuelson Inequality of Chebyshev-Markov Type Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:37:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/832123/ The Chebyshev-Markov extremal distributions by known moments to order four are used to improve the Laguerre-Samuelson inequality for finite real sequences. In general, the refined bound depends not only on the sample size but also on the sample skewness and kurtosis. Numerical illustrations suggest that the refined inequality can almost be attained for randomly distributed completely symmetric sequences from a Cauchy distribution. Werner Hürlimann Copyright © 2014 Werner Hürlimann. All rights reserved. Equal Angle Distribution of Polling Directions in Direct-Search Methods Sun, 20 Jul 2014 11:18:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/619249/ The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to introduce deterministic strategies for directional direct-search methods, including new instances of the mesh adaptive direct-search (MADS) and the generating set search (GSS) class of algorithms, which utilize a nice distribution of PoLL directions when compared to other strategies, and second, to introduce variants of each algorithm which utilize a minimal positive basis at each step. The strategies base their PoLL directions on the use of the QR decomposition to obtain an orthogonal set of directions or on using the equal angular directions from a regular simplex centered at the origin with vertices on the unit sphere. Test results are presented on a set of smooth, nonsmooth, unconstrained, and constrained problems that give comparisons between the various implementations of these directional direct-search methods. Benjamin Van Dyke Copyright © 2014 Benjamin Van Dyke. All rights reserved. An Optimization-Based Approach to Calculate Confidence Interval on Mean Value with Interval Data Sun, 13 Jul 2014 07:23:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/768932/ In this paper, we propose a methodology for construction of confidence interval on mean values with interval data for input variable in uncertainty analysis and design optimization problems. The construction of confidence interval with interval data is known as a combinatorial optimization problem. Finding confidence bounds on the mean with interval data has been generally considered an NP hard problem, because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the confidence interval on mean values with interval data. With numerical experimentation, we show that the proposed confidence bound algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the current practice for the design optimization with interval data that typically implements the constraints on interval variables through the computation of bounds on mean values from the sampled data, the proposed approach of construction of confidence interval enables more complete implementation of design optimization under interval uncertainty. Kais Zaman and Saraf Anika Kritee Copyright © 2014 Kais Zaman and Saraf Anika Kritee. All rights reserved. Beamforming with Reduced Complexity in MIMO Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks Tue, 06 May 2014 12:11:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/325217/ An approach for beamforming with reduced complexity in MIMO cooperative cognitive radio networks (MIMO-CCRN) is presented. Specifically, a suboptimal approach with reduced complexity is proposed to jointly determine the transmit beamforming (TB) and cooperative beamforming (CB) weight vectors along with antenna subset selection in MIMO-CCRN. Two multiantenna secondary users (SU) constitute the desired link, one acting as transmitter (SU TX) and the other as receiver (SU RX) and they coexist with single-antenna primary and secondary users. Some of single antenna secondary users are recruited by desired link as cooperative relay. The maximization of the achievable rates in the desired link is the objective of this work, provided to interference constraints on the primary users are not violated. The objective is achieved by exploiting transmit beamforming at SU TX, cooperation of some secondary users, and cooperative beamforming. Meanwhile, the costs associated with RF chains at the radio front end at SU RX are reduced. Through simulations, it is shown that better performance in the desired link is attained, as a result of cooperation of SUs. Mehdi Ghamari Adian Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Ghamari Adian. All rights reserved.