Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Osteoporosis
Volume 2010, Article ID 729257, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/729257
Review Article

Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Can Restore Normal Spine Mechanics following Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture

Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, Southwell Street, Bristol BS2 8EJ, UK

Received 15 January 2010; Accepted 6 May 2010

Academic Editor: Joao Lindolfo Borges

Copyright © 2010 Jin Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Johnell and J. A. Kanis, “An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1726–1733, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. S. L. Silverman, “The clinical consequences of vertebral compression fracture,” Bone, vol. 13, supplement 2, pp. S27–S31, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. Cockerill, M. Lunt, and M. Lunt, “Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 113–119, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. J. Fechtenbaum, C. Cropet, S. Kolta, S. Horlait, P. Orcel, and C. Roux, “The severity of vertebral fractures and health-related quality of life in osteoporotic postmenopausal women,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2175–2179, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. P. Galibert, H. Deramond, P. Rosat, and D. Le Gars, “Preliminary note on the treatment of vertebral angioma by percutaneous acrylic vertebroplasty,” Neurochirurgie, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 166–168, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Galibert and H. Déramond, “Percutaneous acrylic vertebroplasty as a treatment of vertebral angioma as well as painful and debilitating diseases,” Chirurgie Paris, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 326–335, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. R. Garfin, H. A. Yuan, and M. A. Reiley, “New technologies in spine: kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1511–1515, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. R. Fourney, D. F. Schomer, and D. F. Schomer, “Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for painful vertebral body fractures in cancer patients,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 98, supplement 1, pp. 21–30, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. M. Phillips, F. T. Wetzel, I. Lieberman, and M. Campbell-Hupp, “An in vivo comparison of the potential for extravertebral cement leak after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 2173–2178, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Dudeney, I. H. Lieberman, M.-K. Reinhardt, and M. Hussein, “Kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteolytic vertebral compression fractures as a result of multiple myeloma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 2382–2387, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Kasperk, J. Hillmeier, and J. Hillmeier, “Treatment of painful vertebral fractures by kyphoplasty in patients with primary osteoporosis: a prospective nonrandomized controlled study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 604–612, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. J. T. Ledlie and M. B. Renfro, “Kyphoplasty treatment of vertebral fractures: 2-year outcomes show sustained benefits,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. H. Lieberman, S. Dudeney, M.-K. Reinhardt, and G. Bell, “Initial outcome and efficacy of “kyphoplasty” in the treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1631–1637, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. K. Shindle, M. J. Gardner, J. Koob, S. Bukata, J. A. Cabin, and J. M. Lane, “Vertebral height restoration in osteoporotic compression fractures: kyphoplasty balloon tamp is superior to postural correction alone,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1815–1819, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. G. Voggenreiter, “Balloon kyphoplasty is effective in deformity correction of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 2806–2812, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. H. Diamond, C. Bryant, L. Browne, and W. A. Clark, “Clinical outcomes after acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a 2-year non-randomised trial comparing percutaneous vertebroplasty with conservative therapy,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 113–117, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Hochmuth, D. Proschek, W. Schwarz, M. Mack, A. A. Kurth, and T. J. Vogl, “Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the therapy of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a critical review,” European Radiology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 998–1004, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. J. D. Barr, M. S. Barr, T. J. Lemley, and R. M. McCann, “Percutaneous vertebroplasty for pain relief and spinal stabilization,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 923–928, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. H. Diamond, B. Champion, and W. A. Clark, “Management of acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a nonrandomized trial comparing percutaneous vertebroplasty with conservative therapy,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 257–265, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. McGirt, S. L. Parker, J.-P. Wolinsky, T. F. Witham, A. Bydon, and Z. L. Gokaslan, “Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures: an evidenced-based review of the literature,” Spine Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 501–508, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. R. Buchbinder, R. H. Osborne, and R. H. Osborne, “A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 6, pp. 557–568, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. D. F. Kallmes, B. A. Comstock, and B. A. Comstock, “A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic spinal fractures,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 6, pp. 569–579, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. C. M. Bono, M. Heggeness, C. Mick, D. Resnick, and W. C. Watters III, “North American Spine Society Newly released vertebroplasty randomized controlled trials: a tale of two trials,” Spine Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 238–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. M. A. Adams et al., The Biomechanics of Back Pain, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 2002.
  25. P. Pollintine, A. S. Przybyla, P. Dolan, and M. A. Adams, “Neural arch load-bearing in old and degenerated spines,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Pollintine, M. S. L. M. Van Tunen, J. Luo, M. D. Brown, P. Dolan, and M. A. Adams, “Time-dependent compressive deformation of the ageing spine: relevance to spinal stenosis,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 386–394, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. M. A. Adams, P. Pollintine, J. H. Tobias, G. K. Wakley, and P. Dolan, “Intervertebral disc degeneration can predispose to anterior vertebral fractures in the thoracolumbar spine,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1409–1416, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. P. Pollintine, P. Dolan, J. H. Tobias, and M. A. Adams, “Intervertebral disc degeneration can lead to “stress-shielding” of the anterior vertebral body: a cause of osteoporotic vertebral fracture?” Spine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 774–782, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Luo, D. M. Skrzypiec, P. Pollintine, M. A. Adams, D. J. Annesley-Williams, and P. Dolan, “Mechanical efficacy of vertebroplasty: influence of cement type, BMD, fracture severity, and disc degeneration,” Bone, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1110–1119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. J. Luo et al., “Vertebral deformity: an atraumatic mechanism involving micro-damage and creep,” in Proceedings of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine Annual Meeting, Miami, Fla, USA, 2009.
  31. P. F. Heini, “The current treatment—a survey of osteoporotic fracture treatment. Osteoporotic spine fractures: the spine surgeon's perspective,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 16, supplement 2, pp. S85–S92, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. B. Cortet, E. Roches, R. Logier, E. Houvenagel, G. Gaydier-Souquières, F. Puisieux, and B. Delcambre, “Evaluation of spinal curvatures after a recent osteoporotic vertebral fracture,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 201–208, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Brinckmann, R. Nat, and W. Frobin, “Deformation of the vertebral end-plate under axial loading of the spine,” Spine, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 851–856, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. A. Adams, B. J. C. Freeman, H. P. Morrison, I. W. Nelson, and P. Dolan, “Mechanical initiation of intervertebral disc degeneration,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 1625–1636, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Brinckmann and H. Grootenboer, “Change of disc height, radial disc bulge, and intradiscal pressure from discectomy: an in vitro investigation on human lumbar discs,” Spine, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 641–646, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Zhao, P. Pollintine, B. D. Hole, P. Dolan, and M. A. Adams, “Discogenic origins of spinal instability,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 23, pp. 2621–2630, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. A. Adams, D. S. McNally, and P. Dolan, “'Stress' distributions inside intervertebral discs. The effects of age and degeneration,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—British, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 965–972, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Farooq, J. C. Park, P. Pollintine, D. J. Annesley-Williams, and P. Dolan, “Can vertebroplasty restore normal load-bearing to fractured vertebrae?” Spine, vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 1723–1730, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. B. Dunlop, M. A. Adams, and W. C. Hutton, “Disc space narrowing and the lumbar facet joints,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—British, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 706–710, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Bogduk, “The innervation of the lumbar spine,” Spine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 286–293, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Roberts, S. M. Eisenstein, J. Menage, E. H. Evans, and I. K. Ashton, “Mechanoreceptors in intervertebral discs: morphology, distribution, and neuropeptides,” Spine, vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2645–2651, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Rohlmann, T. Zander, and G. Bergmann, “Spinal loads after osteoporotic vertebral fractures treated by vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty,” European Spine Journal, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1255–1264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. A. M. Briggs, T. V. Wrigley, J. H. Van Dieën, B. Phillips, S. K. Lo, A. M. Greig, and K. L. Bennell, “The effect of osteoporotic vertebral fracture on predicted spinal loads in vivo,” European Spine Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1785–1795, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. T. S. Keller, D. E. Harrison, C. J. Colloca, D. D. Harrison, and T. J. Janik, “Prediction of osteoporotic spinal deformity,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 455–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. M. Briggs, A. M. Greig, and J. D. Wark, “The vertebral fracture cascade in osteoporosis: a review of aetiopathogenesis,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 575–584, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. K. Sun and M. A. K. Liebschner, “Evolution of vertebroplasty: a biomechanical perspective,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 77–91, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. K. Wilcox, “The biomechanics of vertebroplasty: a review,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers H, vol. 218, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. M. Belkoff, J. M. Mathis, L. E. Jasper, and H. Deramond, “The biomechanics of vertebroplasty: the effect of cement volume on mechanical behavior,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1537–1541, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. N. Alkalay, D. Von Stechow, K. Torres, S. Hassan, R. Sommerich, and D. Zurakowski, “The effect of cement augmentation on the geometry and structural response of recovered osteopenic vertebrae: an anterior-wedge fracture model,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 1627–1636, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. J. Luo, W. Bertram, D. Sangar, M. A. Adams, D. J. Annesley-Williams, and P. Dolan, “Is kyphoplasty better than vertebroplasty in restoring normal mechanical function to an injured spine?” Bone, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1050–1057, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. M. Rüger and W. Schmoelz, “Vertebroplasty with high-viscosity polymethylmethacrylate cement facilitates vertebral body restoration in vitro,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 24, pp. 2619–2625, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. F. McKiernan, T. Faciszewski, and R. Jensen, “Reporting height restoration in vertebral compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 2517–2521, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. F. McKiernan, T. Faciszewski, and R. Jensen, “Does vertebral height restoration achieved at vertebroplasty matter?” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 973–979, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. M. M. H. Teng, C.-J. Wei, and C.-J. Wei, “Kyphosis correction and height restoration effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1893–1900, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. B. Dublin, J. Hartman, R. E. Latchaw, J. K. Hald, and M. H. Reid, “The vertebral body fracture in osteoporosis: restoration of height using percutaneous vertebroplasty,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 489–492, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H.-J. Wilke, U. Mehnert, L. E. Claes, M. M. Bierschneider, H. Jaksche, and B. M. Boszczyk, “Biomechanical evaluation of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty with polymethyl methacrylate or calcium phosphate cement under cyclic loading,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 25, pp. 2934–2941, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. M. J. Kim, D. P. Lindsey, M. Hannibal, and T. F. Alamin, “Vertebroplasty versus kyphoplasty: biomechanical behavior under repetitive loading conditions,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 2079–2084, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. D.-K. Chin, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-E. Cho, and J.-J. Shin, “Efficacy of postural reduction in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures followed by percutaneous vertebroplasty,” Neurosurgery, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 695–700, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. W.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Lee, Y.-L. Kuo, Y.-F. Cheng, C.-C. Lui, and T.-T. Cheng, “Refractures in cemented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty: a retrospective analysis,” European Spine Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 592–599, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. D. H. Heo, D. K. Chin, Y. S. Yoon, and S. U. Kuh, “Recollapse of previous vertebral compression fracture after percutaneous vertebroplasty,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 473–480, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. P. A. Hulme, S. J. Ferguson, and S. K. Boyd, “Determination of vertebral endplate deformation under load using micro-computed tomography,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. U. Berlemann, S. J. Ferguson, L.-P. Nolte, and P. F. Heini, “Adjacent vertebral failure after vertebroplasty. A biomechanical investigation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—British, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 748–752, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  63. A. T. Trout, D. F. Kallmes, and T. J. Kaufmann, “New fractures after vertebroplasty: adjacent fractures occur significantly sooner,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 217–223, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. T. Trout and D. F. Kallmes, “Does vertebroplasty cause incident vertebral fractures? A review of available data,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1397–1403, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. Baroud, J. Nemes, P. Heini, and T. Steffen, “Load shift of the intervertebral disc after a vertebroplasty: a finite-element study,” European Spine Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 421–426, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. A. Polikeit, L. P. Nolte, and S. J. Ferguson, “The effect of cement augmentation on the load transfer in an osteoporotic functional spinal unit: finite-element analysis,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 991–996, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. K. Wilcox, “The biomechanical effect of vertebroplasty on the adjacent vertebral body: a finite element study,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers H, vol. 220, no. 4, pp. 565–572, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. T. Trout, D. F. Kallmes, K. F. Layton, K. R. Thielen, and J. G. Hentz, “Vertebral endplate fractures: an indicator of the abnormal forces generated in the spine after vertebroplasty,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1797–1802, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  69. P. A. Hulme, S. K. Boyd, P. F. Heini, and S. J. Ferguson, “Differences in endplate deformation of the adjacent and augmented vertebra following cement augmentation,” European Spine Journal, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 614–623, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. M. M. Kayanja, K. Evans, R. Milks, and I. H. Lieberman, “Adjacent level load transfer following vertebral augmentation in the cadaveric spine,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 21, pp. E790–E797, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. H. Deramond, N. T. Wright, and S. M. Belkoff, “Temperature elevation caused by bone cement polymerization during vertebroplasty,” Bone, vol. 25, supplement 2, pp. 17S–21S, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. Y. Huang, J. J. Yan, and R. M. Lin, “Histopathologic findings of retrieved specimens of vertebroplasty with polymethylmethacrylate cement: case control study,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 19, pp. E585–E588, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. E. Jasper, H. Deramond, J. M. Mathis, and S. M. Belkoff, “Material properties of various cements for use with vertebroplasty,” Journal of Materials Science—Materials in Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Chevalier, D. Pahr, M. Charlebois, P. Heini, E. Schneider, and P. Zysset, “Cement distribution, volume, and compliance in vertebroplasty: some answers from an anatomy-based nonlinear finite element study,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 16, pp. 1722–1730, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. D. H. Heo, Y. J. Cho, S. H. Sheen, S. U. Kuh, S. M. Cho, and S. M. Oh, “Morphological changes of injected calcium phosphate cement in osteoporotic compressed vertebral bodies,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2063–2070, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. A. Boger, M. Bohner, P. Heini, S. Verrier, and E. Schneider, “Properties of an injectable low modulus PMMA bone cement for osteoporotic bone,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 474–482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. A. Boger, K. Wheeler, A. Montali, and E. Gruskin, “NMP-modified PMMA bone cement with adapted mechanical and hardening properties for the use in cancellous bone augmentation,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 760–766, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. A. Boger, P. Heini, M. Windolf, and E. Schneider, “Adjacent vertebral failure after vertebroplasty: a biomechanical study of low-modulus PMMA cement,” European Spine Journal, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2118–2125, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. A. G. Tohmeh, J. M. Mathis, D. C. Fenton, A. M. Levine, and S. M. Belkoff, “Biomechanical efficacy of unipedicular versus bipedicular vertebroplasty for the management of osteoporotic compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 24, no. 17, pp. 1772–1776, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Molloy, L. H. Riley III, and S. M. Belkoff, “Effect of cement volume and placement on mechanical-property restoration resulting from vertebroplasty,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 401–404, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. A. K. Liebschner, W. S. Rosenberg, and T. M. Keaveny, “Effects of bone cement volume and distribution on vertebral stiffness after vertebroplasty,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1547–1554, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Molloy, J. M. Mathis, and S. M. Belkoff, “The effect of vertebral body percentage fill on mechanical behavior during percutaneous vertebroplasty,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 1549–1554, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Graham, C. Ahn, N. Hai, and B. D. Buch, “Effect of bone density on vertebral strength and stiffness after percutaneous vertebroplasty,” Spine, vol. 32, no. 18, pp. E505–E511, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. J. Luo, L. Daines, A. Charalambous, M. A. Adams, D. J. Annesley-Williams, and P. Dolan, “Vertebroplasty: only small cement volumes are required to normalize stress distributions on the vertebral bodies,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 26, pp. 2865–2873, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. K. S. Ryu, C. K. Park, M. C. Kim, and J. K. Kang, “Dose-dependent epidural leakage of polymethylmethacrylate after percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Steens, N. Verdonschot, A. M. M. Aalsma, and A. J. F. Hosman, “The influence of endplate-to-endplate cement augmentation on vertebral strength and stiffness in vertebroplasty,” Spine, vol. 32, no. 15, pp. E419–E422, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. J. Gibson et al., “Does cement distribution influence the mechanical outcome of vertebroplasty?” in Proceedings of the Society of Back Pain Research Meeting, Keele University, November 2008.
  88. G. Baroud, M. Crookshank, and M. Bohner, “High-viscosity cement significantly enhances uniformity of cement filling in vertebroplasty: an experimental model and study on cement leakage,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 2562–2568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. M. Loeffel, S. J. Ferguson, L.-P. Nolte, and J. H. Kowal, “Vertebroplasty: experimental characterization of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement spreading as a function of viscosity, bone porosity, and flow rate,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1352–1359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. K. Sun et al., “Cement filling pattern has a significant effect on biomechanics of vertebroplasty,” in Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2006.
  91. S. R. Garfin, H. A. Yuan, and M. A. Reiley, “New technologies in spine: kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1511–1515, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Weißkopf, J. A. K. Ohnsorge, and F. U. Niethard, “Intravertebral pressure during vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty: an in vitro study,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 178–182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. J. T. Ledlie and M. Renfro, “Balloon kyphoplasty: one-year outcomes in vertebral body height restoration, chronic pain, and activity levels,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 98, supplement 1, pp. 36–42, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. T. Ledlie and M. B. Renfro, “Decreases in the number and severity of morphometrically defined vertebral deformities after kyphoplasty,” Neurosurgical Focus, vol. 18, no. 3, article e4, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  95. M. K. Shindle, M. J. Gardner, J. Koob, S. Bukata, J. A. Cabin, and J. M. Lane, “Vertebral height restoration in osteoporotic compression fractures: kyphoplasty balloon tamp is superior to postural correction alone,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1815–1819, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  96. S. M. Belkoff, J. M. Mathis, D. C. Fenton, R. M. Scribner, M. E. Reiley, and K. Talmadge, “An ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of an inflatable bone tamp used in the treatment of compression fracture,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Hiwatashi, R. Sidhu, R. K. Lee, R. R. DeGuzman, D. T. Piekut, and P.-L. A. Westesson, “Kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty to increase vertebral body height: a cadaveric study,” Radiology, vol. 237, no. 3, pp. 1115–1119, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  98. D. R. Wilson, E. R. Myers, and E. R. Myers, “Effect of augmentation on the mechanics of vertebral wedge fractures,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 158–165, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. D. Ananthakrishnan, S. Berven, V. Deviren, K. Cheng, J. C. Lotz, Z. Xu, and C. M. Puttlitz, “The effect on anterior column loading due to different vertebral augmentation techniques,” Clinical Biomechanics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  100. J. T. Liu, W. J. Liao, W. C. Tan, J. K. Lee, C. H. Liu, Y. H. Chen, and T. B. Lin, “Balloon kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture: a prospective, comparative, and randomized clinical study,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 359–364, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  101. P. F. Heini, U. Berlemann, M. Kaufmann, K. Lippuner, C. Fankhauser, and P. Van Landuyt, “Augmentation of mechanical properties in osteoporotic vertebral bones—a biomechanical investigation of vertebroplasty efficacy with different bone cements,” European Spine Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 164–171, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. K. B. Higgins, R. D. Harten, N. A. Langrana, and M. F. Reiter, “Biomechanical effects of unipedicular vertebroplasty on intact vertebrae,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 1540–1547, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. E. R. Myers and S. E. Wilson, “Biomechanics of osteoporosis and vertebral fracture,” Spine, vol. 22, supplement 24, pp. 25S–31S, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. P. Pollintine, J. Luo, B. Offa-Jones, P. Dolan, and M. A. Adams, “Bone creep can cause progressive vertebral deformity,” Bone, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 466–472, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus