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Journal of Osteoporosis
Volume 2013, Article ID 679025, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/679025
Review Article

Nanohydroxyapatite Application to Osteoporosis Management

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ulin General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lambung Mangkurat, 70232 Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Received 22 July 2013; Accepted 8 September 2013

Academic Editor: S. Minisola

Copyright © 2013 Zairin Noor. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Crystal of normal bone is sodium calcium hydrogen carbonate phosphate hydrate with the chemical formula of Ca8H2(PO4)6·H2O–NaHCO3–H2O. The recent development is applying nanobiology approach to hydroxyapatite. This is based on the concept that the mineral atoms arranged in a crystal structure of hydroxyapatite can be substituted or incorporated by the other mineral atoms. In conclusion, the basic elements of hydroxyapatite crystals, composed of atomic minerals in a certain geometric pattern, and their relationship to the bone cell biological activity have opened opportunities for hydroxyapatite crystals supplement application on osteoporosis. Understanding of the characteristics of bone hydroxyapatite crystals as well as the behavior of mineral atom in the substitution will have a better impact on the management of osteoporosis.