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Journal of Smoking Cessation is the world's only publication devoted exclusively to the treatment of smoking cessation. It is a journal of The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs and the official journal of the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence.
Journal of Smoking Cessation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Waterpipe Smoking among Bladder Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study of Lebanese and Jordanian Populations
Background. Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most reported cancer in Lebanon and the fifth in Jordan. Its risk factors are mainly smoking and occupational exposure to aromatic amines. In these countries where smoking and bladder cancer are highly prevalent, the role of waterpipe smoking (WPS) in bladder cancer is less investigated. We aim to compare two sets of patients between Lebanon and Jordan, focusing on their smoking habits, WP use, occupational exposure, and the grade/invasiveness of their bladder cancer. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that compares the smoking culture between two sets of populations with bladder cancer, from two different countries. We recruited 274 bladder cancer patients over the 18 years of age at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), and 158 bladder cancer patients over the age of 18 years at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC). Results. 7.7% of Lebanese patients had significantly more positive family history of bladder cancer compared to 13.9% of Jordanian patients (). Another significant finding is that the majority of Lebanese patients 70.7% reported being frequently exposed to secondhand smoking, mainly cigarettes, versus only 48.6% of Jordanian patients (). The increasing smoking trend among Lebanese females is remarkably the highest in the region, which contributed to the overall increase in smoking rates in the country. 17.1% of the Lebanese smoking patients are mainly but not exclusively WP smokers of which 6.3% are daily WP smokers, similarly 17.1% of the Jordanian patients of which 3.2% are daily WP smokers. There were 71.5% of Lebanese patients who had a noninvasive BC versus 40% of Jordanian patients (), and more than one-third reported an occupational exposure to one of the risk factors of BC in both groups. Conclusions. Bladder cancer incidence is on the rise in both Jordan and Lebanon along with different smoking types. It is necessary to impose prevention policies to prevent and control the high smoking prevalence. Bladder cancer invasiveness is higher in Jordan compared to universal data.
Household Smoking Restrictions, Time to First Cigarette and Tobacco Dependence
Objective. Environmental factors, such as household smoking restrictions (HSR), may impact a range of smoking-related outcomes. The current study examined the effects of various levels of HSR on smoking behaviors, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day and levels of nicotine dependence in a population of adult smokers. (1) Having specific HSR reduces the urges to smoke (path A); (2) having specific HSR reduces CPD (path B); (3) having specific HSR results in lower overall nicotine addiction (path C), and later, TTFC will be associated with (4) lower urges to smoke in the morning (path A’), (5) fewer CPD (path B’), and (6) lower levels of nicotine addiction (path C’). Method. Regression models using self-reported data from the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study () were used. TTFC was measured minutes between waking and the first cigarette of the day. Household smoking restrictions were measured as follows: (1) full ban on smoking in the home, (2) partial ban, or (3) no ban. Results. Subjects with no household smoking restrictions had lower incomes and education than those with at least some household smoking restrictions; those with full bans smoked less and had an earlier TTFC than those with at least some household smoking restrictions. Smokers with a full ban had a later TTFC, mediated by fewer cigarettes per day and lower cravings. Among those with partial bans, there is no reduction in cigarettes per day and an increase in urges to smoke. Conclusions. Partial household smoking restrictions are no better than no household smoking restrictions with regard to cigarettes per day and TTFC, and may cause an increase in urges to smoke in the morning.
Evaluation of Combined Financial Incentives and Deposit Contract Intervention for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction. We evaluate whether a combination of financial incentives and deposit contracts improves cessation rates among low- to moderate-income smokers. Methods. We randomly assigned 311 smokers covered by Medicaid at 12 health clinics in Connecticut to usual care or one of the three treatment arms. Each treatment arm received financial incentives for two months and either (i) nothing further (“incentives only”), (ii) the option to start a deposit contract with incentive earnings after the incentives ended (“commitment”), or (iii) the option to precommit any earned incentives into a deposit contract starting after the incentives ended (“precommitment”). Smoking cessation was confirmed biochemically at two, six, and twelve months. Results. At two, six, and twelve months after baseline, our estimated treatment effects on cessation are positive but imprecise, with confidence intervals containing effect sizes estimated by prior studies of financial incentives alone and deposit contracts alone. At two months, the odds ratio for quitting was 1.4 in the incentive-only condition (95% CI: 0.5 to 3.5), 2.0 for incentives followed by commitment (95% CI: 0.6 to 6.1), and 1.9 for incentives and precommitment (95% CI: 0.7 to 5.3). Conclusions. A combined incentive and deposit contract program for Medicaid enrollees, with incentives offering up to $300 for smoking cessation and use of support services, produced a positive but imprecisely estimated effect on biochemically verified cessation relative to usual care and with no detectable difference in cessation rates between the different treatment arms.
Smoking Cessation Treatment for Parents Who Dual Use E-Cigarettes and Traditional Cigarettes
Introduction. An increasing number of parents use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (dual users). Previous studies have shown that dual users may have higher rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. This study was aimed to assess the delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline) among parents who report being dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers. Methods. A secondary analysis of parent survey data collected between April and October 2017 at 10 pediatric primary care practices participating in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention was conducted. Parents were considered to be dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes if they reported smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the past seven days and using an e-cigarette within the past 30 days. Parents were asked if they received a prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline to help them quit from their child’s clinician. Multivariable logistic regression examined factors (dual use, insurance status, relationship to the child, race, and education status of the parent) associated with delivery of smoking cessation treatment (receiving prescriptions and/or enrollment in quitline) to smoking parents. Further, we compared the rates of tobacco cessation treatment delivery to dual users in the usual-care control practices vs. intervention practices. Results. Of 1007 smokers or recent quitters surveyed in the five intervention practices, 722 parents reported current use of cigarettes-only and 111 used e-cigarettes. Of these 111 parents, 82 (73.9%) reported smoking cigarettes. Parents were more likely to report receiving any treatment if they were dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.38, 4.29). Child’s insurance status, parents’ sex, education, and race were not associated with parental receipt of tobacco cessation treatment in the model. No dual users in the usual-care control practices reported receiving treatment. Discussion. Dual users who visited CEASE intervention practices were more likely to receive treatment than cigarette-only smokers when treatments were discussed. An increased uptake of tobacco cessation treatments among dual users reinforces the importance of discussing treatment options with this group, while also recognizing that cigarette-only smokers may require additional intervention to increase the acceptance rate of cessation assistance. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01882348.
Perception of Tobacco Counseling and Cessation among Dental Practitioners
Objective. To investigate the knowledge and practice of tobacco cessation and counseling (TCC) among dental practitioners and their attitude and perceived barriers. Methods. A cross-sectional study targeted licensed dental practitioners in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants answered a pretested and validated self-administered questionnaire consisted of demographic data; smoking status; knowledge of tobacco hazards, attitude, and practice; and perceived barriers of tobacco cessation counseling. Result. Among the total sample of 529, response rate was 72.2% (mean age (), males (42.4%), and current smokers (23.8%)). Only 13.2% received formal training on TCC. Around (57.1%) reported smoking of dental team as an obstacle for TCC. Half of the participants (49.9%) reported patient’s resistance as barrier to TCC. Others (45%–48%) reported insufficient time, knowledge, or training for TCC. Professional responsibility and willingness to provide cessation services constituted the highest median. Conclusion. The majority showed willingness to participate in TCC. Lack of training, smoking status of providers, females, inadequate materials, and patients’ resistance were the most common barriers. Education and training on TCC are recommended and should be allowed as a routine practice in dentistry.
Does Medication Sampling Improve Compliance with Brief Advice? Results from a Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial
Introduction. The 5As model is a standard component of most guidelines for tobacco treatment. Unfortunately, provider adherence to this model is modest. Aims. Providing physicians with adjunctive tools to adhere to 5As guidelines may serve as a catalyst for brief advice delivery. Methods. This was a secondary data analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial assessing the uptake and impact of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling versus standard care in primary care. Patients reported receipt of separate elements of the 5As model, assessed one month following a baseline visit. Analyses compared patients who recalled receipt of brief advice among those who received NRT vs. standard care. Additional analyses examined demographic predictors of receiving brief advice. Results/Findings. Medication sampling did not improve compliance with ask, advise, or assess. Receipt of “assistance” was significantly higher among NRT recipients (70%) (). The NRT sampling group was more likely to have received all components (). As age increased, being asked (), advised (), and assessed () decreased. Non-Whites reported higher rates of assessment (). Conclusions. Provision of NRT sampling increased provider compliance with some elements of the brief advice model, thus enhancing the impact of cessation advice within primary care. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02096029.