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Journal of Smoking Cessation is the world's only publication devoted exclusively to the treatment of smoking cessation. It is a journal of The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs and the official journal of the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence.
Journal of Smoking Cessation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Impact of the Tips from Former Smokers® Campaign on Reducing Cigarette Smoking Relapse
Evidence-based mass-reach health communication campaigns can increase tobacco cessation, use of cessation resources such as quitlines, and change tobacco-related social norms. These interventions have been associated with a lower likelihood of cigarette smoking relapse in studies conducted internationally; however, no studies have assessed this outcome for a national campaign in the United States. This study examined the relationship between Tips from Former Smokers® (Tips®) campaign exposure and the odds of cigarette smoking relapse among adults who formerly smoked. Using data from the 2014 to 2019 Tips longitudinal campaign surveys, we estimated first episode of relapse (versus remaining a former smoker) as a function of Tips gross rating points (GRPs, a measure of media exposure). Higher levels of Tips GRPs were associated with lower odds of relapse (, 95% CI: 0.50-0.78). These results suggest that the Tips campaign may reduce smoking relapse, in addition to the established effect of increasing smoking cessation. Former smokers can be considered a secondary target audience for smoking cessation mass media campaigns, and mass media campaigns could be considered a component of smoking relapse prevention efforts.
How Electronic Cigarette Affects the Vascular System
The popularity of the electronic cigarette has soared in the last decades. However, the health effect of smoking electronic cigarettes on the vascular system is unclear. This systematic review examines the electronic cigarettes’ effect on the vascular system from recent evidence. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed) database from January 2016 to August 2021 for studies assessing the vascular effect of chronic use of electronic cigarettes on human and animal. The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2, NIH Quality Assessment for Cross-Sectional Study, and SYRCLE’s Risk of Bias were used to assess the risk of bias in interventional, observational, and animal study, respectively. A narrative synthesis of evidence is provided to describe results. From 101 retrieved studies related to electronic cigarettes effect on the vascular system, a total of 16 studies are included in this review. The overall results indicated that electronic cigarette use is associated with adverse events in the vascular, including the incident of elevated oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, arterial stiffness, and the development of atherosclerotic lesion. Further studies should broaden perspectives and reveal more about the mechanism of how electronic cigarettes impact on vascular system.
Perception of Cigarette Graphic Health Warnings and Its Impact on Smoking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study among Current Smokers of Western Part of Nepal
Globally, tobacco use (smoked, secondhand, and chewing) accounted for 8.71 million deaths, which is 15.4% of all deaths in 2019. Tobacco was ranked first among males and sixth among female in terms of level 2 risk factor for attributable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to identify the perception of cigarette graphic health warnings and their impact on smoking behavior in Nepal. A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling technique was done. Out of 169 respondents, 79.9% were male, 49.1% were illiterate, and 37.9% were above 60 years of age. Eighty-four percent had initiated smoking before the age of 20, and 39.6% had smoked cigarettes for more than 40 years. All the respondents had noticed the graphic health warning on cigarette packages. The majority (80.5%) of the respondents reported that the warning informs about specific health consequences of smoking, and the percentage of respondents believing that warning motivates smokers to quit smoking, encourages smokers to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and deters potential smokers from starting to smoke was 40.2%, 33.1%, and 30.8%, respectively. More than half of the respondents (50.9%) attempted to quit smoking because of the warning. The implementation of graphic health warnings had favorable perception from majority of smokers and positive impact on smoking behavior of the respondents. Further large-scale research on impact on smoking behavior through repeated cross-sectional studies can be future research priority.
Effects of Smoking on Aggression, Big Five Personality Factors, and Polymorphisms in HTR2A, DRD4, and MAOA among Egypt University Students
Introduction. To find genetic variants in the DRD4 and HTR2A genes’ promoter regions and exons that are associated with tobacco smoking and nicotine addiction in Egyptian university students as well as to study the association between personality traits and smoking status. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking and personality attributes (Big Five Inventory, ESPAD Questionnaire on Substance Abuse, and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire). The participants in the study were 90 nonsmokers (NS) and 88 current smokers (CS), who were divided into two groups depending on their cigarette consumption per day (cpd): 55 heavy smokers (HS, >20 cpd) and 33 light smokers (LS, 1–10 cpd). Four and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DRD4, HTR2A, and MOA genes, respectively, were genotyped. Results. Smokers scored lower on neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion than nonsmokers, but higher on aggression. Furthermore, the C allele of rs1800955 in DRD4 was associated with cigarette smoking in the HS vs. NS and LS vs. NS studies. The T allele of the HTR2A rs6313 gene was discovered to be strongly associated with cigarette smoking. There was no link discovered between MOA rs1137070 and MOA rs1137070. Conclusions. Using a comprehensive personality model (FFM), this study repeats and extends earlier research. Personality and genetic studies may aid in the development of a more complete and conclusive understanding of cigarette smoking, as well as more precise policies and guidelines for smoking cessation and quitting.
If You Pay, Will They Come? Evaluating the Impact of Subsidies on Cessation Outcomes in the Walk or Run to Quit Program
Introduction. Exercise interventions may assist smoking cessation attempts. One such publicly available 10-week program, Walk or Run to Quit (WRTQ), demonstrated success in smoking cessation and physical activity (PA) outcomes. However, initial WRTQ participants (2016-2017) were fairly homogenous in their demographic profile. To increase diversity, subsidies for participation were offered in 2018. This study assessed how the subsidies affected participant demographics, running frequency, smoking cessation, intention to quit, and program attendance and completion. Methods. The $70 registration fee was subsidized for 41% of participants in 2018. A pre-postdesign was used, with participants completing surveys on their demographics and smoking and physical activity behaviours. Descriptive statistics compared the year subsidies were available (2018) and unsubsidized years (2016-2017) and subsidized and unsubsidized participants’ data from 2018. Results. The 2018 participants had lower average attendance and program completion rates compared to 2016-2017 and no statistically significant differences in demographics or smoking cessation and PA outcomes. There were no differences in smoking cessation, run frequency, or demographic variables between the subsidized and unsubsidized participants in 2018. Conclusions. Offering subsidies did not diversify the participant profile. Subsidies did not have a negative impact on attendance nor primary outcomes. Subsidies may not have addressed barriers that prevented a more diverse sample from participating in WRTQ, such as program location, timing, and design. Equitable access to smoking cessation programs remains essential. As subsidies may play a role in reducing financial barriers disproportionately faced by marginalized groups, the implementation of, and recruitment for, such subsidized programs requires further investigation.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Tobacco Treatment in Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Report of a One-Week Treatment
Background. Smoking cessation represents a significant opportunity to improve cancer survival rates, reduces the risk of cancer treatment complications, and improves quality of life. However, about half of cancer patients who smoke continue to smoke despite the availability of several treatments. Previous studies demonstrate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreases cue craving, reduces cigarette consumption, and increases the quit rate in tobacco use disorder. We investigated whether 5 sessions of rTMS can be safely and efficaciously used for smoking cessation in cancer patients. Methods. We enrolled 11 treatment-seeking smokers with cancer (>5 cigarettes per day) in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled proof-of-concept study. Participants received 5 daily sessions of active 10 Hz rTMS of the left DLPFC (3000 pulses per session) or sham rTMS and were followed up for 1 month via phone assessments. Main outcomes included reductions in the number of smoked-cigarettes per day (primary) and craving (secondary). Adverse effects were reported daily by participants. Results. Seven of 11 participants completed 5 sessions of rTMS over one week. Compared to sham treatment (), the active rTMS () exhibited modest effects overtime on smoking (Cohen’s effect size of 0.16) and large effects on cue craving (). No serious side effects related to rTMS were reported in the treatment. Conclusions. Five sessions of daily rTMS over the left DLPFC might benefit cancer patients who smoke cigarettes. However, further evidence is needed to determine with more certainty its therapeutic effect and adverse effects for cancer patients who smoke cigarettes.