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Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2011, Article ID 368067, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Recurrence of Congenital Heart Disease in Cases with Familial Risk Screened Prenatally by Echocardiography

1Department of Pediatric Cardiosurgery, Center of Fetal Cardiology, Policlinico San Donato IRCCS, Via Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
2Clinical Genetic Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Ospedale San Giuseppe, 20123 Milan, Italy
4Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ospedale B. Romeo, 98066 Patti, Messina, Italy
5Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry Unit, Policlinico San Donato IRCCS, 20097 Milan, Italy

Received 10 May 2011; Accepted 1 August 2011

Academic Editor: Albert Fortuny

Copyright © 2011 Vlasta Fesslova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To evaluate the recurrence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women with familial risk who had been referred for fetal echocardiography. Material and Methods. 1634 pregnancies from 1483 women with familial history of CHD in one or more relatives were studied. Fetal cardiologic diagnosis was compared with postnatal findings at 6 months or at autopsy. Results. Total recurrence rate of CHD was 3.98%, 4.06% in single familial risk, 2.9% in double, and 5% in multiple risk. It was 3.5% in case of one previously affected child; 4.5% with 2 children; 5.2% with the mother alone affected and 7,5% with father alone affected and 3.5% with a single distant relative. Exact concordance of CHD was found in 21.5% and a partial concordance in 20% of cases. Conclusions. Our data show a higher recurrence rate of CHD than previously published data and high relative risk ratios compared to normal population.