Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2012, Article ID 704146, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/704146
Review Article

Prevention of Vascular Dysfunction after Preeclampsia: A Potential Long-Term Outcome Measure and an Emerging Goal for Treatment

1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Oxford Cardiovascular Clinical Research Facility, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

Received 29 July 2011; Accepted 15 September 2011

Academic Editor: Christos Iavazzo

Copyright © 2012 Merzaka Lazdam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Bellamy, J. P. Casas, A. D. Hingorani, and D. J. Williams, “Pre-eclampsia and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 335, no. 7627, pp. 974–977, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. S. D. McDonald, A. Malinowski, Q. Zhou, S. Yusuf, and P. J. Devereaux, “Cardiovascular sequelae of preeclampsia/eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analyses,” American Heart Journal, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 918–930, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Lykke, J. Langhoff-Roos, B. M. Sibai, E. F. Funai, E. W. Triche, and M. J. Paidas, “Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the mother,” Hypertension, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 944–951, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. L. Mosca, E. J. Benjamin, K. Berra et al., “Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a Guideline from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 11, pp. 1243–1262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. L. A. Magee and P. von Dadelszen, “Pre-eclampsia and increased cardiovascular risk,” British Medical Journal, vol. 335, no. 7627, pp. 945–946, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. H. U. Irgens, L. Reisæter, L. M. Irgens, and R. T. Lie, “Long term mortality of mothers and fathers after pre-eclampsia: population based cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 323, no. 7323, pp. 1213–1217, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Lazdam, A. De La Horra, A. Pitcher et al., “Elevated blood pressure in offspring born premature to hypertensive pregnancy: is endothelial dysfunction the underlying vascular mechanism?” Hypertension, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 159–165, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. M. Higgins, J. Keller, and F. Moore, “Studies of blood pressure in Tecumseh, Michigan. I. Blood pressure in young people and its relationship to personal and familial characteristics and complications of pregnancy in mothers,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 142–155, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  9. H. G. Langford and R. L. Watson, “Prepregnant blood pressure, hypertension during pregnancy, and later blood pressure of mothers and offspring,” Hypertension, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 130–133, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  10. H. Palti and E. Rothschild, “Blood pressure and growth at 6 years of age among offsprings of mothers with hypertension of pregnancy,” Early Human Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 263–269, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. S. Seidman, A. Laor, R. Gale, D. K. Stevenson, S. Mashiach, and Y. L. Danon, “Pre-eclampsia and offspring's blood pressure, cognitive ability and physical development at 17-years-of-age,” British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1009–1014, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Tenhola, E. Rahiala, P. Halonen, E. Vanninen, and R. Voutilainen, “Maternal preeclampsia predicts elevated blood pressure in 12-year-old children: evaluation by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring,” Pediatric Research, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 320–324, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. A. O. Robb, N. L. Mills, J. N. Din et al., “Influence of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and preeclampsia on arterial stiffness,” Hypertension, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 952–958, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. Y. Yinon, J. C. P. Kingdom, A. Odutayo et al., “Vascular dysfunction in women with a history of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: insights into future vascular risk,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 18, pp. 1846–1853, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. C. S. Evans, L. Gooch, D. Flotta et al., “Cardiovascular system during the postpartum state in women with a history of preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. O. Páez, J. Alfie, M. Gorosito et al., “Parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and in endothelium-dependent dilatation in young women with a history of pre-eclampsia,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 544–552, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. A. Elvan-Taşpinar, M. L. Bots, A. Franx, H. W. Bruinse, and R. H. H. Engelbert, “Stiffness of the arterial wall, joints and skin in women with a history of pre-eclampsia,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 147–151, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K. H. Lampinen, M. Rönnback, R. J. Kaaja, and P. H. Groop, “Impaired vascular dilatation in women with a history of pre-eclampsia,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 751–756, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. J. Blaauw, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal et al., “Increased intima-media thickness after early-onset preeclampsia,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1345–1351, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. N. K. Kuscu, Z. Kurhan, Y. Yildirim, T. Tavli, and F. Koyuncu, “Detection of endothelial dysfunction in preeclamptic patients by using color Doppler sonography,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 268, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Noori, A. E. Donald, A. Angelakopoulou, A. D. Hingorani, and D. J. Williams, “Prospective study of placental angiogenic factors and maternal vascular function before and after preeclampsia and gestational hypertension,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 478–487, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. R. R. Hamad, M. J. Eriksson, A. Silveira, A. Hamsten, and K. Bremme, “Decreased flow-mediated dilation is present 1 year after a pre-eclamptic pregnancy,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2301–2307, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. A. M. Germain, M. C. Romanik, I. Guerra et al., “Endothelial dysfunction: a link among preeclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss, and future cardiovascular events?” Hypertension, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 90–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. J. C. Chambers, L. Fusi, I. S. Malik, D. O. Haskard, M. De Swiet, and J. S. Kooner, “Association of maternal endothelial dysfunction with preeclampsia,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 12, pp. 1607–1612, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  25. T. Lommerse, R. Aardenburg, A. Houben, and L. L. Peeters, “Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in formerly preeclamptic women correlates inversely with body mass index and varies independently of plasma volume,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 765–770, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. P. K. Agatisa, R. B. Ness, J. M. Roberts, J. P. Costantino, L. H. Kuller, and M. K. McLaughlin, “Impairment of endothelial function in women with a history of preeclampsia: an indicator of cardiovascular risk,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 286, no. 4, pp. H1389–H1393, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. A. S. Kvehaugen, R. Dechend, H. B. Ramstad, R. Troisi, D. Fugelseth, and A. C. Staff, “Endothelial function and circulating biomarkers are disturbed in women and children after preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. F. Khan, J. J. F. Belch, M. MacLeod, and G. Mires, “Changes in endothelial function precede the clinical disease in women in whom preeclampsia develops,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1123–1128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. J. Blaauw, R. Graaff, M. G. van Pampus et al., “Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity in recently preeclamptic women,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 626–632, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. J. E. Ramsay, F. Stewart, I. A. Greer, and N. Sattar, “Microvascular dysfunction: a link between pre-eclampsia and maternal coronary heart disease,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 110, no. 11, pp. 1029–1031, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. E. A. P. Steegers, P. von Dadelszen, J. J. Duvekot, and R. Pijnenborg, “Pre-eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9741, pp. 631–644, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. W. G. Redman and I. L. Sargent, “Immunology of pre-eclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 534–543, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  33. C. W. G. Redman and I. L. Sargent, “Placental stress and pre-eclampsia: a revised view,” Placenta, vol. 30, supplement 1, pp. 38–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. V. A. Rodie, D. J. Freeman, N. Sattar, and I. A. Greer, “Pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease: metabolic syndrome of pregnancy?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 189–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. L. Poston, “Endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 58, pp. 69–74, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  36. R. J. Levine, C. Lam, C. Qian et al., “Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 10, pp. 992–1005, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. R. J. Levine, S. E. Maynard, C. Qian et al., “Circulating angiogenic factors and the risk of preeclampsia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 7, pp. 672–683, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. S. Ahmad and A. Ahmed, “Elevated placental soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 inhibits angiogenesis in preeclampsia,” Circulation Research, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 884–891, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. A. Wang, S. Rana, and S. A. Karumanchi, “Preeclampsia: the role of angiogenic factors in its pathogenesis,” Physiology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 147–158, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. E. M. George and J. P. Granger, “Endothelin: key mediator of hypertension in preeclampsia,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 964–969, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  41. A. Yoshida, S. Nakao, M. Kobayashi, and H. Kobayashi, “Flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 400–404, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. D. Savvidou, A. D. Hingorani, D. Tsikas, J. C. Frölich, P. Vallance, and K. H. Nicolaides, “Endothelial dysfunction and raised plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine in pregnant women who subsequently develop pre-eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9368, pp. 1511–1517, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. S. Nishikawa, A. Miyamoto, H. Yamamoto, H. Ohshika, and R. Kudo, “Preeclamptic serum enhances endothelin-converting enzyme expression in cultured endothelial cells,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. G. A. Knock and L. Poston, “Bradykinin-mediated relaxation of isolated maternal resistance arteries in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 175, no. 6, pp. 1668–1674, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. A. P. Cockell and L. Poston, “Flow-mediated vasodilatation is enhanced in normal pregnancy but reduced in preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 247–251, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  46. T. Yamamoto, Y. Suzuki, K. Kojima, and K. Suzumori, “Reduced flow-mediated vasodilation is not due to a decrease in production of nitric oxide in preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 192, no. 2, pp. 558–563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. L. Bowyer, M. A. Brown, and M. Jones, “Forearm blood flow in pre-eclampsia,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 383–391, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. E. Anastasakis, K. I. Paraskevas, N. Papantoniou et al., “Association between abnormal uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry, risk of preeclampsia, and indices of arterial structure and function: a pilot study,” Angiology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 493–499, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. K. M. Hasan, I. T. Manyonda, F. S. Ng, D. R. J. Singer, and T. F. T. Antonios, “Skin capillary density changes in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2439–2443, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. B. Sibai, G. Dekker, and M. Kupferminc, “Pre-eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9461, pp. 785–799, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. L. Poston, A. Briley, P. Seed, F. Kelly, and A. Shennan, “Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9517, pp. 1145–1154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. S. Meher and L. Duley, “Nitric oxide for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD006490, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  53. T. F. Luscher, “The endothelium and cardiovascular disease—a complex relation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. J. P. J. Halcox, W. H. Schenke, G. Zalos et al., “Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 653–658, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. J. A. Suwaidi, S. Hamasaki, S. T. Higano, R. A. Nishimura, D. R. Holmes, and A. Lerman, “Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 948–954, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  56. H. A. Hadi, C. S. Carr, and J. Al Suwaidi, “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 183–198, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  57. C. P. M. Leeson, M. Kattenhorn, R. Morley, A. Lucas, and J. E. Deanfield, “Impact of low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial function in early adult life,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 1264–1268, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  58. C. M. McEniery, A. Qasem, M. Schmitt, A. P. Avolio, J. R. Cockcroft, and I. B. Wilkinson, “Endothelin-1 regulates arterial pulse wave velocity in vivo,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1975–1981, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. I. B. Wilkinson, A. Qasem, C. M. McEniery, D. J. Webb, A. P. Avolio, and J. R. Cockcroft, “Nitric oxide regulates local arterial distensibility in vivo,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 213–217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. C. M. McEniery, S. Wallace, I. S. MacKenzie et al., “Endothelial function is associated with pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index in healthy humans,” Hypertension, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 602–608, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. J. P. J. Halcox, A. E. Donald, E. Ellins et al., “Endothelial function predicts progression of carotid intima-media thickness,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 1005–1012, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  62. M. Juonala, J. S. A. Viikari, T. Laitinen et al., “Interrelations between brachial endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 18, pp. 2918–2923, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  63. P. J. Touboul, M. G. Hennerici, S. Meairs et al., “Mannheim intima-media thickness consensus,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 346–349, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. S. Sanada, K. Node, T. Minamino et al., “Long-acting Ca2+ blockers prevent myocardial remodeling induced by chronic NO inhibition in rats,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 963–967, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  65. L. A. Barouch, R. W. Harrison, M. W. Skaf et al., “Nitric oxide regulates the heart by spatial confinement of nitric oxide synthase isoforms,” Nature, vol. 416, no. 6878, pp. 337–339, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  66. D. Levy, R. J. Garrison, D. D. Savage, W. B. Kannel, and W. P. Castelli, “Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 322, no. 22, pp. 1561–1566, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  67. F. Perticone, R. Maio, R. Ceravolo, C. Cosco, C. Cloro, and P. L. Mattioli, “Relationship between left ventricular mass and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in never-treated hypertensive patients,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 15, pp. 1991–1996, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  68. J. Sung, P. Ouyang, A. C. Bacher et al., “Peripheral endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation is associated with left ventricular mass in older persons with hypertension,” American Heart Journal, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. V. Palmieri, G. Storto, E. Arezzi et al., “Relations of left ventricular mass and systolic function to endothelial function and coronary flow reserve in healthy, new discovered hypertensive subjects,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 941–950, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  70. L. Lind, “Left ventricular mass is related to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the forearm, but not in the brachial artery, in elderly subjects: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 767–773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  71. T. Hasegawa, B. Boden-Albala, K. Eguchi et al., “Impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation is associated with increased left ventricular mass in a multiethnic population. the northern manhattan study,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 413–419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. J. Yeboah, J. R. Crouse, D. A. Bluemke et al., “Endothelial dysfunction is associated with left ventricular mass (assessed using MRI) in an adult population (MESA),” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. C. Antoniades, S. Mussa, C. Shirodaria et al., “Relation of preoperative radial artery flow-mediated dilatation to nitric oxide bioavailability in radial artery grafts used in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 216–220, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. C. Leeson, M. Robinson, J. Francis et al., “Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for non-invasive assessment of vascular function: validation against ultrasound,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 381–387, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. E. M. Urbina, R. V. Williams, B. S. Alpert et al., “Noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in children and adolescents: recommendations for standard assessment for clinical research: a scientific statement from the american heart association,” Hypertension, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 919–950, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  76. M. W. Lorenz, H. S. Markus, M. L. Bots, M. Rosvall, and M. Sitzer, “Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 459–467, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  77. G. Ajne, K. Wolff, F. Fyhrquist, K. Carlström, A. Hemsén-Mörtberg, and H. Nisell, “Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 215–224, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  78. F. M. Stewart, D. J. Freeman, J. E. Ramsay, I. A. Greer, M. Caslake, and W. R. Ferrell, “Longitudinal assessment of maternal endothelial function and markers of inflammation and placental function throughout pregnancy in lean and obese mothers,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 969–975, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  79. D. J. Freeman, F. McManus, E. A. Brown et al., “Short- and long-term changes in plasma inflammatory markers associated with preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 708–714, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  80. N. Sattar, J. Ramsay, L. Crawford, H. Cheyne, and I. A. Greer, “Classic and novel risk factor parameters in women with a history of preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  81. A. J. H. M. Houben, P. W. De Leeuw, and L. L. H. Peeters, “Configuration of the microcirculation in pre-eclampsia: possible role of the venular system,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1665–1670, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  82. E. Kajantie, J. G. Eriksson, C. Osmond, K. Thornburg, and D. J. P. Barker, “Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of stroke in the adult offspring the helsinki birth cohort study,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1176–1180, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  83. K. Palmsten, S. L. Buka, and K. B. Michels, “Maternal pregnancy-related hypertension and risk for hypertension in offspring later in life,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 858–864, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  84. I. Ferreira, L. L. Peeters, and C. D. A. Stehouwer, “Preeclampsia and increased blood pressure in the offspring: meta-analysis and critical review of the evidence,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1955–1959, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  85. NICE, “Hypertension (Update),” 2011, http://www.nice.org.uk/newsroom/pressreleases/NewGuidelineForDiagnosingAndTreatingHighBloodPressure.jsp. View at Google Scholar
  86. M. Akcakus, L. Altunay, A. Yikilmaz, C. Yazici, and E. Koklu, “The relationship between abdominal aortic intima-media thickness and lipid profile in neonates born to mothers with preeclampsia,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1143–1149, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. P. Y. Jayet, S. F. Rimoldi, T. Stuber et al., “Pulmonary and systemic vascular dysfunction in young offspring of mothers with preeclampsia,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 488–494, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. C. P. M. Leeson, P. H. Whincup, D. G. Cook et al., “Flow-mediated dilation in 9- to 11-year-old children: the influence of intrauterine and childhood factors,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 2233–2238, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  89. A. L. Fowden, D. A. Giussani, and A. J. Forhead, “Intrauterine programming of physiological systems: causes and consequences,” Physiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  90. C. Catarino, I. Rebelo, L. Belo et al., “Fetal and maternal angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy,” Growth Factors, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 345–351, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  91. K. Braekke, P. M. Ueland, N. K. Harsem, and A. C. Staff, “Asymmetric dimethylarginine in the maternal and fetal circulation in preeclampsia Fetal and maternal angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy,” Pediatric Research, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 411–415, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  92. P. Leeson, “Pediatric prevention of atherosclerosis: targeting early variation in vascular biology,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1204–1206, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed