Journal of Pregnancy / 2012 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

Table 4

Maternal smoking in pregnancy and WPPSI-Ra subtest raw scores.

Avgerage number of cigarettes/dayUnadjustedAdjusted for core confoundersbAdjusted for potential confoundersc
Mean scoreMean difference (95% CI)Mean difference (95% CI)Mean difference 95% CI

Information
 019.3ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–919.0−0.3 (−0.9, 0.3)−0.1 (−0.6, 0.5)−0.1 (−0.7, 0.5)
 10+18.7−0.6 (−1.1, 0.0)−0.2 (−0.7, 0.4)−0.1 (−0.7, 0.5)
Vocabulary
 021.1ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–920.6−0.5 (−1.6, 0.6)0.0 (−1.0, 1.0)0.0 (−1.1, 1.0)
 10+20.8−0.3 (−1.3, 0.6) 0.6 (−0.3, 1.5) 0.7 (−0.3, 1.8)
Arithmetic
 014.9ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–914.3 −0.6 (−1.1, 0.2) −0.3 (−0.9, 0.2)−0.3 (−0.9, 0.3)
 10+14.2 −0.7 (−1.2, 0.0) −0.1 (−0.8, 0.5)−0.1 (−0.8, 0.6)
Object assembly
 023.6ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–923.3−0.3 (−1.2, 0.7)0.0 (−0.9, 0.8)0.2 (−0.8, 0.1)
 10+23.1−0.5 (−1.3, 0.3) 0.1 (−0.8, 0.9)0.2 (−0.7, 0.1)
Block design
 024.3ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–923.9 −0.4 −1.7, 0.8 −0.2 (−1.4, 1.0) 0.0 −1.4, 1.4
 10+23.4 −0.9 −2.3, 0.5 −0.2 (−1.5, 1.1) 0.1 −1.5, 1.5
Geometric design
 037.7ReferenceReferenceReference
 1–935.8−1.9 −3.8, −0.1 −1.6 −3.3, 0.0 −2.0 −3.8, −0.1
 10+35.1−2.6 −4.7, −0.5 −1.9 −4.0, 0.1 −2.0 −4.3, 0.2

aWPPSI-R Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised.
bParental education, maternal IQ, maternal prenatal alcohol consumption, the child’s sex, age at testing, and tester.
cParental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal alcohol consumption, the child’s sex, age at testing, and tester, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, prenatal paternal smoking, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, maternal prepregnancy BMI, the child’s sex, age at testing, health status, family/home environment.