Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2014, Article ID 906723, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/906723
Research Article

Maternal Opioid Drug Use during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Perinatal Morbidity, Mortality, and the Costs of Medical Care in the United States

1Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 2 Tampa General Circle, 6th Floor, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
2Maternal and Child Health Comparative Effectiveness Research Group, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard MDC 56, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
3Department of Community and Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of Indiana, 1111 Middle Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
4Department of Health Policy and Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 750, Nashville, TN 32703, USA

Received 10 July 2014; Accepted 20 August 2014; Published 28 August 2014

Academic Editor: Deborah A. Wing

Copyright © 2014 Valerie E. Whiteman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. M. Kuehn, “Opioid prescriptions soar: increase in legitimate use as well as abuse,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 3, pp. 249–251, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. M. Benningfield, A. M. Arria, K. Kaltenbach et al., “Co-occurring psychiatric symptoms are associated with increased psychological, social, and medical impairment in opioid dependent pregnant women,” The American Journal on Addictions, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 416–421, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Kaltenbach, V. Berghella, and L. Finnegan, “Opioid dependence during pregnancy: effects and management,” Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 139–151, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. M. Benningfield, M. S. Dietrich, H. E. Jones et al., “Opioid dependence during pregnancy: relationships of anxiety and depression symptoms to treatment outcomes,” Addiction, vol. 107, supplement 1, pp. 74–82, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. A. Shainker, K. Saia, and A. Lee-Parritz, “Opioid addiction in pregnancy,” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 817–825, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. M. Compton and N. D. Volkow, “Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 83, supplement 1, pp. S4–S7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. J. Hayes and M. S. Brown, “Epidemic of prescription opiate abuse and neonatal abstinence,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 18, pp. 1974–1975, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. S. Höflich, M. Langer, R. Jagsch et al., “Peripartum pain management in opioid dependent women,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 574–584, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. E. Kelly, M. J. Riede, K. Bridgman-Acker, A. Lauwers, P. Madadi, and G. Koren, “Are infants exposed to methadone in utero at an increased risk for mortality?” Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. e160–e165, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Meyer, A. Benvenuto, D. Howard et al., “Development of a substance abuse program for opioid-dependent nonurban pregnant women improves outcome,” Journal of Addiction Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. M. Park, S. Meltzer-Brody, and J. Suzuki, “Evaluation and management of opioid dependence in pregnancy,” Psychosomatics, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 424–432, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Winklbaur, N. Kopf, N. Ebner, E. Jung, K. Thau, and G. Fischer, “Treating pregnant women dependent on opioids is not the same as treating pregnancy and opioid dependence: a knowledge synthesis for better treatment for women and neonates,” Addiction, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 1429–1440, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Heberlein, L. Leggio, D. Stichtenoth, and T. Hillemacher, “The treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence in pregnant women,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 559–564, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. A. Armstrong, M. G. Kennedy, A. Kline, and C. Tunstall, “Reproductive health needs: comparing women at high, drug-related risk of HIV with a national sample,” Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 65–78, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. W. Patrick, R. E. Schumacher, B. D. Benneyworth, E. E. Krans, J. M. McAllister, and M. M. Davis, “Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care expenditures: United States, 2000–2009,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 18, pp. 1934–1940, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. M. Salihu, M. F. Mogos, A. A. Salinas-Miranda, J. L. Salemi, and V. E. Whiteman, “National trends in maternal use of opioid drugs among pregnancy-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998 to 2009,” The American Journal of Perinatology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. “Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: summary of national findings and detailed tables,” in NSDUH Series H-44, HHS, Publication No (SMA) 12-4713, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, Md, USA, 2012.
  18. Health Care Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Introduction to the NIS: 2009, HCUP NIS Related Reports, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Md, USA, 2011.
  19. C. Merrill and P. L. Owens, “Reasons for being admitted to the hospital through the emergency department for children and adolescents, 2004,” Statistical Brief 33, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. L. Salemi, M. M. Comins, K. Chandler, M. F. Mogos, and H. M. Salihu, “A practical approach for calculating reliable cost estimates from observational data: application to cost analyses in maternal and child health,” Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 343–357, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. “Cost-to-Charge Ratio Files,” http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/state/costtocharge.jsp#obtain.
  22. Y. Sun and B. Friedman, “Tools for more accurate inpatient cost estimates with HCUP databases, 2009. Errata added October 25, 2012,” HCUP Methods Series Report 2011-04, U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. X. Song and B. Friedman, “Calculate cost adjustment factors by APR-DRG and CCS using selected states with detailed charges,” HCUP Methods Series Report 2008-04, U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. “Using the HCUP nationwide inpatient sample to estimate trends (updated for 1988–2004),” HCUP Methods Series Report #2006-05, 2006, http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/methods/2006_05_NISTrendsReport_1988-2004.pdf.
  25. B. M. Lester, L. Andreozzi, and L. Appiah, “Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research,” Harm Reduction Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, article 5, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Salihu, M. Mogos, A. Salinas-Miranda, J. Salemi, and V. Whiteman, “National trends in maternal use of opioid drugs among pregnancy-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998–2009,” American Journal of Perinatology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. N. Davison, “Pain in hemodialysis patients: prevalence, cause, severity, and management,” The American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1239–1247, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Doolittle and W. Becker, “A case series of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment in a primary care practice,” Substance Abuse, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 262–265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. L. Bell and K. Lau, “Perinatal and neonatal issues of substance abuse,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 261–281, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. K. Lam, W. K. To, S. J. Duthie, and H. K. Ma, “Narcotic addiction in pregnancy with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 216–221, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. U. A. Pritham, J. A. Paul, and M. J. Hayes, “Opioid dependency in pregnancy and length of stay for neonatal abstinence syndrome,” JOGNN—Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 180–190, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Field, M. Diego, M. Hernandez-Reif et al., “Depressed pregnant black women have a greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight outcomes,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. R. W. Fisher, M. M. Morrow, N. T. N. Ngoc, and L. T. H. Anh, “Prevalence, nature, severity and correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms in Vietnam,” BJOG, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 1353–1360, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Fisher, T. Tran, B. T. La, K. Kriitmaa, D. Rosenthal, and T. Tran, “Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 737–745, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. C. Moore, C. J. Easton, and T. J. McMahon, “Drug abuse and intimate partner violence: a comparative study of opioid-dependent fathers,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 218–227, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. K. Hulse, E. Milne, D. R. English, and C. D. J. Holman, “Assessing the relationship between maternal opiate use and neonatal mortality,” Addiction, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 1033–1042, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. J. Kreek, J. Schluger, L. Borg, M. Gunduz, and A. Ho, “Dynorphin A1-13 causes elevation of serum levels of prolactin through an opioid receptor mechanism in humans: gender differences and implications for modulation of dopaminergic tone in the treatment of addictions,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 260–269, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. H. Heil, H. E. Jones, A. Arria et al., “Unintended pregnancy in opioid-abusing women,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 199–202, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. J. Mercier, J. Garrett, J. Thorp, and A. M. Siega-Riz, “Pregnancy intention and postpartum depression: secondary data analysis from a prospective cohort,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 1116–1122, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Goel, D. Beasley, V. Rajkumar, and S. Banerjee, “Perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy—comparative and contemporary socio-clinical profile in the UK,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. A. Huestis and R. E. Choo, “Drug abuse's smallest victims: in utero drug exposure,” Forensic Science International, vol. 128, no. 1-2, pp. 20–30, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. J. W. Liu, M. P. Jones, H. Murray, C. M. Cook, and R. Nanan, “Perinatal risk factors for the neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to women on methadone maintenance therapy,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 253–258, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. FETUS, “Newborn: planned home birth,” Pediatrics, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1016–1020, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  44. J. Zhao, T. Stockwell, and S. Macdonald, “Non-response bias in alcohol and drug population surveys,” Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 648–657, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Rogowski, “Measuring the cost of neonatal and perinatal care,” Pediatrics, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 329–335, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus