Journal of Pregnancy / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Maternal Opioid Drug Use during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Perinatal Morbidity, Mortality, and the Costs of Medical Care in the United States

Table 1

Ratesa  of opioid use by maternal sociodemographic, perinatal, behavioral, and hospital characteristics, among pregnancy-related discharges, NIS, 1998–2009.

CharacteristicRatea  of opioid use (95% CI)ORc
(95% CI)
AORd
(95% CI)

Overall55,781,9652.48 (2.18–2.78)n/an/a
Maternal age (years)
 13–196,198,7960.93 (0.82–1.04)0.35 (0.31–0.38)0.23 (0.21–0.26)
 20–2413,822,0232.47 (2.16–2.77)0.91 (0.85–0.98)0.62 (0.58–0.66)
 25–2915,001,0572.70 (2.35–3.05)ReferenceReference
 30–3412,797,4062.76 (2.37–3.15)1.02 (0.94–1.11)1.36 (1.26–1.47)
 ≥357,921,4642.84 (2.41–3.28)1.05 (0.97–1.15)1.37 (1.25–1.50)
 Other/unknown41,2180.37 (<0.00–0.89)0.14 (0.03–0.56)0.15 (0.03–0.66)
Maternal race
 White, non-Hispanic22,047,3272.90 (2.52–3.28)ReferenceReference
 Black, non-Hispanic6,025,9133.24 (2.32–4.17)1.12 (0.88–1.43)0.61 (0.48–0.78)
 Hispanic9,444,1771.33 (1.07–1.59)0.46 (0.37–0.56)0.31 (0.25–0.38)
 Other, non-Hispanic4,079,3831.02 (0.80–1.24)0.35 (0.28–0.44)0.26 (0.21–0.34)
 Missing/unknown14,185,1652.68 (2.02–3.35)0.93 (0.70–1.22)0.98 (0.78–1.23)
Tobacco use
 Yes2,009,09221.60 (18.71–24.50)12.50 (11.41–13.70)6.67 (6.07–7.33)
 No53,772,8731.76 (1.56–1.97)ReferenceReference
Alcohol use
 Yes96,62981.02 (71.00–91.04)37.56 (33.98–41.52)7.17 (6.42–7.99)
 No55,685,3362.34 (2.06–2.62)ReferenceReference
Hospital region
 Northeast9,516,2394.47 (3.66–5.28)2.60 (1.88–3.60)2.16 (1.60–2.92)
 Midwest12,032,9002.35 (1.74–2.96)1.37 (0.94–1.98)0.88 (0.60–1.28)
 South20,796,0152.13 (1.61–2.65)1.24 (0.86–1.78)0.87 (0.63–1.18)
 West13,436,8111.72 (1.26–2.19)ReferenceReference
Hospital location
 Rural6,877,9371.36 (1.15–1.58)ReferenceReference
 Urban48,763,8272.64 (2.30–2.98)1.94 (1.58–2.38)2.22 (1.80–2.74)
Hospital teaching status
 Nonteaching29,501,4651.63 (1.43–1.82)ReferenceReference
 Teaching26,140,2993.44 (2.85–4.04)2.12 (1.72–2.62)1.68 (1.33–2.12)
Hospital bed size
 Small6,100,9552.39 (1.84–2.94)0.89 (0.63–1.28)0.82 (0.59–1.13)
 Medium14,821,8222.67 (1.94–3.39)ReferenceReference
 Large34,718,9872.42 (2.06–2.77)0.91 (0.66–1.23)0.95 (0.72–1.26)
Household income
 Lowest quartile14,617,1693.58 (3.06–4.10)2.53 (2.19–2.93)1.54 (1.36–1.82)
 2nd quartile14,070,5842.50 (2.18–2.82)1.76 (1.58–1.97)1.20 (1.09–1.33)
 3rd quartile13,294,1692.18 (1.89–2.47)1.54 (1.41–1.67)1.17 (1.08–1.26)
 Highest quartile12,830,6591.42 (1.23–1.60)ReferenceReference
 Missing/unknown969,3833.63 (3.02–4.24)2.56 (2.17–3.03)1.43 (1.17–1.75)
Primary payer
 Medicare/medicaid22,249,8344.51 (3.89–5.14)6.90 (6.07–7.84)8.87 (7.66–10.27)
 Private29,701,6130.66 (0.59–0.73)ReferenceReference
 Other3,830,5184.79 (4.18–5.41)7.33 (6.54–8.22)9.20 (8.16–10.38)

AOR = adjusted odds ratio, CI = confidence interval, NIS = Nationwide Inpatient Sample, OR = odds ratio.
aPer 1,000 pregnancy-related discharges.
bWeighted to estimate national frequency and may not add to total due to missing data.
cCrude model comparing the odds of maternal opioid use across different levels of each characteristic, separately.
dA single multivariable model includes all characteristics that appear in the table.

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