Journal of Pregnancy / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Maternal Opioid Drug Use during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Perinatal Morbidity, Mortality, and the Costs of Medical Care in the United States

Table 2

Ratesa  of selected clinical outcomes by opioid use status and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between opioid use and each outcome among pregnancy-related discharges, NIS, 1998–2009.

OutcomesRatea  of outcomeOR (95% CI)
Opioid usersNonopioid usersModel 1bModel 2cModel 3d

Threatened preterm labor30.122.31.36 (1.24–1.49)1.34 (1.22–1.47)1.32 (1.19–1.45)
Early onset delivery124.065.22.03 (1.88–2.20)1.92 (1.77–2.07)1.72 (1.59–1.85)
PROM38.535.41.10 (1.00–1.20)1.12 (1.03–1.23)1.06 (0.98–1.16)
Wound infection7.05.01.41 (1.18–1.68)1.19 (1.00–1.42)1.17 (0.98–1.40)
Acute renal failure2.10.54.10 (3.11–5.41)2.78 (2.09–3.72)2.84 (2.11–3.84)
Postpartum depressionf24.72.112.04 (10.83–13.40)2.09 (1.79–2.44)1.75 (1.49–2.05)
Hospital stay >5 dayse133.429.95.00 (4.16–6.02)4.83 (4.10–5.69)4.02 (3.41–4.74)
In-hospital maternal mortality0.80.15.89 (3.74–9.28)3.63 (2.32–5.68)3.69 (2.32–5.87)
Poor fetal growth35.915.92.31 (2.10–2.55)2.21 (2.00–2.44)1.61 (1.46–1.77)
Stillbirth10.06.31.60 (1.39–1.83)1.41 (1.23–1.62)1.32 (1.15–1.51)

CI = confidence interval, NIS = Nationwide Inpatient Sample, OR = odds ratio, PROM = premature rupture of membranes.
aPer 1,000 pregnancy-related discharges.
bCrude model with maternal opioid use as the only independent variable.
cModel 1 + adjustment for maternal age, household income, multiple birth, primary payer, and rural/urban status.
dModel 2 + adjustment for tobacco, alcohol, maternal obesity, chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and existing hypertension.
eModel also adjusts for disposition at discharge.
fModel also adjusts for history of depression.

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