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Journal of Pregnancy
Volume 2016, Article ID 5871313, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5871313
Research Article

The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

1Department of Nursing, Franklin Pierce University, Portsmouth, NH 03801, USA
2School of Nursing, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
3Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
4Department of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA

Received 12 June 2016; Revised 30 July 2016; Accepted 2 August 2016

Academic Editor: Rosa Corcoy

Copyright © 2016 Nancy Baugh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.